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Art Final Questions

STUDY
PLAY
Which of Raphael's works includes a self-portrait?
The School of Athens
Which artist best represents all the ideals of the High Renaissance in one person?
Raphael
. Which four artists define the High Renaissance?
Raphael, Leonardo, Michelangelo, and Titian
Upon which moment in the story of Jesus's Last Supper did Leonardo focus in his portrayal?
Jesus's statement that one of the disciples would betray him
What is the word for the system of shading using light and dark?
Chiaroscuro
In which of his works did Leonardo explore the relationship of the circle and the square to the ideal human body?
Vitruvian Man
Which unusual feature did Leonardo's notebooks have?
. The writing is mirror image
Which is the term for the effect in painting of softer or smoky edges?
Sfumato
Which did Leonardo think was the best time of day for lighting?
dusk
Which theme gave Raphael early fame?
Virgin and Child
Which was Raphael's first commission in Rome?
a Virgin and Child for the Pope
Whose influence on Raphael is seen in the architectural setting of the School of Athens?
Leonardo
Which is the term for a painting or drawing used as a model or pattern for another work?
Sketch
Which work has Michelangelo's signature?
Sistine Ceiling
How does Michelangelo organize and give structure to the Sistine Ceiling?
with fictive architectural elements
What is the symbolism of the oak leaves and acorns on the Sistine Ceiling?
Old Testament
Where did Michelangelo include a self-portrait in the Last Judgement?
in Charon's boat
From where does the image of Charon ferrying his boat across the River Styx that Michelangelo uses in his Last Judgement come?
Book of Revelations
Both Bramante's and Michelangelo's plans for Saint Peter's were?
Greek Crosses
In which subject is Titian considered to be "incomparable"?
Female Nudes
Whose Last Supper was criticized because it was too grandiose, vulgar, and included dogs and foreign soldiers?
Veronese's
What did Veronese change in his Last Supper?
The architectural setting
Palladio's early training was as a?
Stonecutter
Which person's books, I quattro libri dell'architettura, have influenced great architects for centuries?
Andrea Palladio
Which building was the main inspiration for the Villa Rotonda?
The Pantheon
Thomas Jefferson's home at Monticello was most directly influenced by?
Brunelleschi
Mannerism originated in?
Florence, Italy
Which of the following is a grand country palace?
Chauteau
In which capacity was the Isenheim Altarpiece used?
treatment for ill patients
Who was the leading German Renaissance artist?
Matthias Grünewald
In which work does Dürer first use a canon of ideal human proportions?
Adam and Eve
What is typically Northern (rather than Italian) about Dürer's Adam and Eve?
the name plaque
The religious reformers were most vocal against what?
art in churches
Which invention fueled the Reformation?
Movable Metal Type
What generally happened to art in churches that became Protestant?.
It was destroyed and the walls whitewashed
Which subject became more important to artists living in newly Protestant cities?
Portraiture
What is Dürer trying to show in his Four Apostles?
that Protestant imagery was possible
Which was a new category of imagery after the Reformation?
Landscape
What did Holbein do because of harassment from reformers?
moved to England
What is the term for a series of paintings on a single subject?
Cycle
It is thought that the word Baroque may come from the word for?
an irregularly shaped pearl.
Which of the following is a characteristic of the Rococo, as opposed to the Baroque?
A Lighter Palette
Which element on Bernini's Baldacchino DOES NOT symbolize the Pope's family?
Anchors
How has Bernini incorporated the Cornaro family into his sculptural group at the Cornaro Chapel?
with eight statues of them in two theater boxes on either side
Which artist introduced intense new realism and a dramatic use of light and gesture to Italian Baroque art?
Caravaggio
Why was Caravaggio's work sometimes rejected?
It was too brutally naturalistic
Which visual quotation does Caravaggio make in The Calling of Saint Matthew?
a hand gesture from Michelangelo's Creation of Adam
Which of the following is an invention of Caravaggio's?
Tenebrism
Who had a bad temper and was always in trouble with the law?
Caravaggio
Who was one of Caravaggio's most successful Italian followers?
Artemisia Gentileschi
Who was the first woman elected to the Florentine Academy of Design?
Artemisia Gentileschi
Which strong influence is seen in the early career of Velázquez?
Caravaggio
Who had a profound influence on the nineteenth-century movement Impressionism?
Velázquez
Who was made a knight of the Order of Santiago and included their insignia on his jacket in a selfportrait?
Velázquez
Who was Spain's "most popular" Baroque painter?
Murillo
In Jan Brueghel and Peter Paul Rubens' allegory Sight, what did Rubens paint?
A Still Life
Which of the following is often considered to be the greatest group portrait ever painted?
Officers of the Harlem Militia Company of Saint Adrian, Franz Hals
. Which intaglio process uses acid to "cut" the plate?
Etching
Which artist is known for his many personal self-portraits?
Rembrandt
To whom does le Roi Soleil (the Sun King) refer?
Louis XIV of France
What was Versailles before Louis XIV?
Botanical Garden
What is Samuel Adams doing in Copley's portrait of him?
demanding that British troops leave Boston
Which philosophy provided the basis for the American and French Revolutions?
the Enlightenment
What was another name for the Enlightenment, a time of enthusiasm for scientific inquiry?
Age of Reason
Which movement did the excavations at Pompeii and Herculaneum stimulate?
Neoclassicism
Neoclassicism usually borrows its subject matter from where?
Neoclassicism
Which art movement was particularly interested in moral incorruptibility, patriotism, and courage?
Neoclassicism
Which art movement is characterized by fantastic or literary themes often set in a remote time or place and infused with poetic fancy or melancholy?
Romanticism
Which style is most likely to include the strong subjective feelings of the artist?
Romanticism
Which is the nineteenth-century movement that emphasized descriptive accuracy?
Realism
Which is the principle that Rousseau and other Enlightenment philosophers taught that seems to be a conscious theme in Vigée-Lebrun's Portrait of Marie Antoinette with Her Children?
the importance of each class fulfilling their duty
What was the biannual or annual show of the French Academy called?
Paris Salon
Which is the strongest and most obvious influence on Thomas Jefferson's design for his home at Monticello?
French Rococo
David's Oath of the Horatii became an emblem for what?
the French Revolution
Which Baroque element is in David's Napoleon Crossing the Saint-Bernard?
evocation of intense emotion
Who was one of David's most talented pupils?
Ingres
Which element of art is most important in the work of Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres?
Value
Which element of art is most important in the work of Eugène Delacroix?
Color
Which artist criticized Spanish morals and manners, especially in his Los Caprichos?
Francisco Goya
Which best describes the attitude of Francisco Goya?
Humanity is violent, greedy, and foolish
Interestingly, who hung a copy of Fuseli's The Nightmare in his office?
Napoleon Bonaparte
What does "camera obscura" mean?
Dark Chamber
Who was the first person to make a permanent photographic image?
Joseph-Nicéphore Niépce
Which is an early photographic process that was a positive print made on a light-sensitized copper plate using iodine fumes, mercury vapors, and a salt water bath?
Dagurreotype
Which photographic process developed the negative from which an unlimited number of positives could be made?
Calotype
Whose landscapes were refused because they were not idealized, not peopled with biblical or classical figures, and were too sketchy and unfinished?
Rosa Bonheur
What was it that Rosa Bonheur had to get police permission in order to do?
wear men's clothing
Thomas Cole inspired a group of landscape painters in the early nineteenth-century. What were they called?
Hudson River School
What was Georges Seurat's technique called?
Pointillism
Which group of artists is well known for painting en plein air?
The Impressionists
What does en plein air mean?
in the open air
Which of the following best describes the way that Manet paints his figures?
near absence of modeling
Whose painting gave Impressionism its name?
Monet
Which group first organized exhibitions independent from the official Salon?
the Impressionists
The art of which country so greatly influenced French art in the last half of the nineteenth century that a term was coined (the country's name being the root of the term) just to describe this influence?
Saudi Arabia
Which increased in French art because of Japonisme?
Decorative Flatness
For which subject is Degas best known?
Ballet Scenes
Which Post-Impressionist artist was most influential in the development of twentieth-century abstraction?
Paul Cézanne
Who changed the Impressionist brushstroke to be more solid and rectangular and applied more according to a grid of vertical and horizontal shapes?
Paul Gauguin
Who began the concept of seeing objects from different viewpoints into the same painting?
Edvard Munch
Which is an art term that was originally a military term for the advance unit?
Avant-Garde
A strong influence on Paul Gauguin was?
Medieval Stained Glass
Which artist contributed most significantly to the emergence of expressionism?
Vincent van Gogh
Compared to the Impressionists, how does Vincent van Gogh apply paint?
longer energetic strokes
Which artist is best known for expressing anxiety and a fear of death?
Edvard Munch
Which is true of Rodin's Burghers of Calais?
their arms and hands were enlarged
How did Camille Claudel change The Waltz after the inspector from the Ministry of the Beaux-Arts saw it?
Added Drapery
Which patron became more important to artists in the last half of the nineteenth century?
The Bourgeoisie
What did Duchamp call found objects, that is, ordinary manufactured items?
Readymades
Who is considered to be a forerunner to every postmodern art movement?
Marcel Duchamp
What are the documents called wherein twentieth-century artists wrote declarations of their artistic principles?
Manifestoes
Which kind of art must communicate EXCLUSIVELY through formal means such as line, shape, color, and texture?
Nonrepresentational
The tendency to emphasize physical processes, for example, visible brushstrokes or chisel marks, is a characteristic of?
Modernism
What caused Modern art to be transformed from an embattled fringe movement to being a component of "high culture"?
state supported museums of modern art
Fauve means?
Wild Beasts
Which of the following best describes Henri Matisse's idea of what art should be or do?
a mental comforter, like a good armchair
Which of the following best describes Käthe Schmidt Kollwitz's idea of what art should be or do?
a political tool, to reach as many people as possible
For which media is Käthe Schmidt Kollwitz best known?
Printmaking
Who did Käthe Schmidt Kollwitz use for the figure of Black Anna in The Outbreak?
Herself
Which movement was organized by Kandinsky to include nine artists interested in the power of color?
Der Blaue Reiter
Which art movement was the invention of Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque?
Cubism
Who seems to have named Cubism?
Louis Vauxcelles
Which is the movement where objects are broken into basic geometric shapes and knit together using Cézanne's passage technique?
Analytic Cubism
Which is the movement where motifs are created by combining simpler elements (sometimes they are actually pasted on)?
Synthetic Cubism
Multiple perspectives, i.e., seeing an object from more than one point of view, is an important pictorial device in which movement?
Fauvism
Which art movement combined Fauvist color with Analytic Cubist form in works dedicated to the modern city and modern technology?
Orphism
Which art movement aimed to attack everything old, dull, feminine, and safe and promote the masculine, including warfare and speed?
Futurism
Which work personifies the new Italian man rushing headlong into the brave new Futurist world?
Unique Forms of Continuity in Space
Who was the artist who produced the first truly nonrepresentational work of art?
Kasimir Malevich
Why, according to Duchamp, is Fountain a work of art?
The artist chose it.
What was it that the 291 tried to elevate to the level of other visual arts?
Photography
Which is an approach to making or discussing art that is focused on design, composition, and the elements of art?
Formalism
Mondrian thought that the beauty we see in nature is?
Picturesque or Sublime
The primary colors are?
Red, Yellow, and Blue.
What did Mondrian eliminate in his work?
Representational Elements
Which art movement was particularly interested in exploring Freud's ideas about the subconscious?
Surrealism
Which group would be most likely to use dream analysis, free association, automatic writing, word games, and hypnotic trances?
Surrealism
Which of the following is a technique where a person tries to encourage the subconscious to create something without rational control?
Readymade
Merit Oppenheim's most famous work intentionally confuses which element of art?
Texture
What took on new importance in the work of Henry Moore?
Motion
Alexander Calder invented?
mobiles
What makes Calder's mobiles move?
Air Currents
Who coined the name "mobile"?
Marcel Duchamp
Which group of painters worked with simplified forms, crisply defined edges, smooth brushwork, and unmodulated colors?
Precisionists
What is the title of Grant Wood's American classic of an Iowa farmer and his daughter?
American Gothic
Who modeled for Grant Wood's famous painting of an Iowa farmer and his daughter?
Wood's sister and dentist
What was the result of Dorothea Lange's photographs?
The federal government began the Farm Securities Administration
What was the movement of African-American writers, artists, and musicians that explored black experience and identity?
Harlem Renaissance
Whose photographs of African Americans in Harlem in the first half of the twentieth century conveyed a sense of racial pride and social empowerment?
James VanDer Zee
What was the primary subject of Jacob Lawrence's early work?
Black History
In which category is the work of Frida Kahlo generally placed (even though she herself thought it was an uncomfortable fit)?
Surrealism
On which occasion was The Two Fridas painted?
Frida's marriage to Diego Rivera
Which of the following describes the design aesthetic of Gerrit Rietveld?
Rectangular Planes of Color
What did Le Corbusier think was necessary in designing extremely high-density housing?
reducing population density
The ideas of Le Corbusier formed the basis of which movement?
ornamental
Where did many Bauhaus artists, designers, and architects go because of Nazi antagonism?
United States
Frank Lloyd Wright surprised the client at Fallingwater by doing what?
placing the house on a stream
Which is the term for the elements that project out from the house at Fallingwater?
Cantilevers
According to Maya Ying Lin, what was an important point of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial?
Futility Of War
By design, the arms of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial are pointing toward what?
Lincoln Memorial and the Washington Monument
Which artist attempted to recover the primordial language of art with a style that recalled a prehistoric cave wall?
Antoni Tapies
What is another name for Abstract Expressionism?
the New York School
What is the storehouse of feelings and symbolic associations common to all humans called?
the collective unconscious
Which was the art movement that used large rectangles of color to evoke transcendent emotional states?
Color Field
Which of the following describes the work of Mark Rothko?
large rectangles that hint at a momentary resolution of our duality
Which of the following describes the work of Helen Frankenthaler?
thinned oil paints that resemble watercolor
Which of the following describes the work of David Smith?
polished steel inspired by the formalism of Analytic Cubism
According to the theories of Clement Greenberg what was disappearing from art?
Figuration
According to Clement Greenberg, a work of art should be judged on which one criteria?
Formal Analysis
Which is the term for putting disparate elements together to construct a work of art?
Assemblage
Which of the following describes Robert Rauschenberg's "combines"?
chaotic mixture of painted and found elements
Which of the following is a grand country palace?
Chauteau
Which of the following describes Richard Hamilton's work?
It satirizes American materialism.
Is it a sign of vulgarity, "bad," or uneducated taste if one likes which of the following?
Abstract Expressionism
Which of the following describes Roy Lichtenstein's work?
Something from an AD or cartoon
Which of the following describes Andy Warhol's work?
It uses precisely structured patterns of lines and colors.
Which of the following describes the work of Claes Oldenburg?
polished steel inspired by the formalism of Analytic Cubism
Which of the following is a description of Op Art?
It uses precisely structured patterns of lines and colors.
Which of the following is an aim of Minimalism?
Simplicity and Clarity
Whose assertion that art was a mental, rather than a physical, activity influenced the Conceptualists?
Jackson Pollock
Which is the art form that produced dramatic displays?
Performance Art
Who, in the spirit of Duchamp, designated himself a work of art?
Bruce Nauman
Which form did Robert Smithson use because it suggested to him the perpetual "coming and going of things"?
Spiral
Whose work is totally dependent on collaboration?
Christo and Jeanne-Claude
China painting and needlework are traditional women's mediums, but should be considered "high" art forms according to whom?
Judy Chicago
Which artist appropriates the stereotypical, cheerful, domestic, black servant and changes its meaning?
Betye Saar
Which artist is best known for the photographs of herself in various assumed roles?
Faith Ringgold
Which term implies the rejection of the concept of the mainstream and recognition of artistic pluralism?
Postmodernism
Which of the following artists works on irregularly shaped canvases with swelling shapes?
Clifford Possum Tjapaltjarri
What is the French Philosopher Jacques Derrida's theory called that texts have unstable meanings that change depending on the context?
Deconstruction
Which of the following describes the work of Nam June Paik?
it evokes images and information carried by electronic communication systems
Which describes the work of Martin Puryear?
wooden objects that may suggest a sea creature or musical instrument
Ludwig Mies van der Rohe was a?
Bauhaus Architect.
Explanations about why we make art, what constitutes art, and about the creative process have a long history called?
critical theory.
Architecture that is complex, contradictory, and borrows from "high" and "low" architecture and from the past is which of the following styles?
International Style
What did Frank O. Gehry suggest in the shape of the Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao, Spain because of its importance to the economy of the city?
a ship
After 1950, where was the capital of the art world?
New York