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A person's cognitive interpretation of events


When people are complimented, they often feel embarrassed

attitude of gratitude

Focusing on things about which to be grateful


Being an optimist can keep you healthy. Alternatively, being a pessimist can contribute to your being unhealthy.


Humor has been shown to be an effective means of coping with stress

palliative care

Care designed to make patients comfortable rather than cure them
ex.Terminally ill patients who receive hospice are receive this care


Patients with end stage renal disease who had a greater sense of humor decreased their odds of survival by 31 percent over patients with less of a sense of humor

type A

A large body of research relates this behavior to the early onset of coronary heart disease

type A behavior

A cluster of behaviors associated with the development of coronary heart disease

type A behavior pattern

_______________ is "a particular complex of personality traits, including excessive competitive drive, aggressiveness, impatience, and a harrying sense of time urgency" as well as a " free floating, but well rationalized form of hostility , and almost always a deep seated insecurity"

Friedman, Rosenman

The two cardiologists who defined and named the type A behavior pattern

retrospective studies

Comparisons after the development of the disease

type b

Behavior pattern that is not excessively competitive, with no free-floating hostility and no sense of time urgency. Also develops coronary heart disease

impatience/irritability, achievement striving

What are two components of type A behavior that appear to operate in opposing directions

achievement striving

________________ is characterized by job dedication, target settings, and hard driving behavior.

type A

Hostility towards people and even inanimate objects such as parking meters, is a characteristic of _____________behavior pattern

polyphasic behavior

_____________ is doing two or more things at the same time. This often distracts from the attention each needs and deserves. It also is one component of the Type A behavior

self esteem

How highly one regards oneself

type C

A personality type proposed to be associated with the development of cancer. Characterized by denial and suppression of emotion, in particular anger, resentment and hostility, and pathological niceness.

type d

A personality type associated with the development of and death from coronary heart disease. Characterized by negative emotion and inhibited self-expression

type D

People possessing ______ for depressed are anxious, irritable , and insecure


The very essence of stress management requires confidence in yourself and in your decisions to control your effectively

self efficacy

An important concept related to self esteem is ______, which is the belief that you can be successful at doing something.


Research have found that self efficacy is related to recovery from post traumatic stress disorder, academic success in college, occupational stress, depression, life satisfaction, and less stress and burnout.

external locus of control

The perception that one has little control over events that affect one's life

internal locus of control

The perception that one has control over events that affect one's life

cocreator perception deficiency

The belief that one is either the victim of circumstances or the master of circumstances , each of which is erroneous


An unrealistic fear that manifests itself in physiological arousal and behaviors to avoid or escape the anxiety-provoking stimulus


_______ operationally as an unrealistic fear resulting in physiological arousal and accompanied by the behavioral signs of escape or avoidance

worry, emotionality

Test anxiety has been conceptualized to consist of two major components: ________, and ______.. The first component is concern about failing. The second component refers to unpleasant feelings and physiological reactions brought on by tests

state anxiety

Anxiety that is either temporary in nature or specific to a particular stimulus

trait anxiety

A general sense of anxiety not specific to a particular stimulus

panic disorder

A condition in which feelings of terror arise from unrealistic fear, resulting in symptoms such as feeling numb, sweaty, weak, and faint.

panic disorder

People with __________ have feelings of terror that strike suddenly and repeatedly with no warning.


Panic disorder affects about 6 million adult Americans and is twice as common in women as in men.


an excessive fear of situations in which having a panic attack seems likely and/or dangerous or embarrassing

cognitive behavioral therapy

____________ also called exposure therapy, involves very slowly exposing patients to the fearful situation until they become desensitized to it.

Social phobia

Overwhelming fear and excessive self-consciousness in everyday situations; a chronic fear of being watched by others and not performing well. Fear of public speaking is an example

blushing , profuse sweating, trembling , nausea, difficulty talking

What are 5 physical symptoms that often accompany the intense anxiety of social phobia?


Women and men are equally like to develop social phobia

specific phobia

An intense fear of a specific situation that poses little or no actual danger. Fear of elevators is an example


Specific phobia usually first appear during childhood or adolescence and tend to persist into adulthood

environmental planning, relabeling, self talk, thought stopping, systematic desensitization, cognitive restructuring, the ABCDE technique

Give 7 examples of coping techniques for anxiety

systematic desensitization

Developed by Joseph Wolpe
Involves imagining or experiencing an anxiety provoking scene while practicing a response incompatible with anxiety

Systematic desensitization

Either imagining or encountering an anxiety-provoking stimulus while practicing relaxation

fear hierarchy

A list of small steps to move through an anxiety provoking stimulus

fear hierarchy

The_________is a sequence of small steps that leads up to the anxiety provoking event.

armchair desensitization

A form of systematic desensitization in which the stimulus is imagined

in vivo desensitization

A form of systematic desensitization in which the stimulus is actually encountered

armchair desensitization, in vivo desensitization

You can employ the desensitization procedure in a relatively safe environment by imaging yourself at an airport using _____________, or use it at an actual airport (__________________________________)

Cognitive restructuring

___________ enables us to see the situation more accurately, and to perceive the consequences or outcomes as less catastrophic.

cognitive restructuring

A method of coping with anxiety that involves thinking about an anxiety provoking event as less threatening

ABCDE technique

a method of coping with anxiety that consists of examining irrational beliefs

Albert Ellis

What psychologist theorized the ABCDE technique?

activating agent, belief system, consequences, dispute irrational beliefs, effect

What are the 5 parts of the ABCDE technique?

activating agent, belief system, consequences, dispute irrational beliefs, effect

The ABCDE techniques involves the following steps
~__________________(identify the stressor)
~________________( identify rational and irrational beliefs)
~_______________(mental, physical, and behavioral)
~___________(changed consequences)

self talk

cognitive technique; suppression of negative, anxiety-provoking thoughts and replaced with positive, "coping" statements


The ability to identify and make use of strengths and assets to respond to challenges , thereby growing as an individual


The tendency to involve oneself in whatever one is doing,


involves the tendency to believe that and act as if one can influence the course of events


involves the related expectations tat is normal for the life to change and that changes will stimulate personal growth


People who the "three C's are termed _____ and seem to be able to withstand the onslaught of stressor.

control, commitment, challenge

What are the three c's to hardiness?

selective awareness

______________ is deciding on whether to focus on the good or on the bad in a situation or person. Focusing on the good is less stressful


A state of mind and body that includes three factors: commitment, control, and challenge


Individuals with low self-esteem experience stress from not thinking well of themselves, not trusting their own opinions and acting non assertively

locus of control

___________ is the perception of the amount of control you believe you have over events that affect your life


Albert Ellis developed the _______ techniques for managing anxiety. It consists of examining irrational beliefs that make us anxious, changing those beliefs, and envisioning more positive consequences of our actions


__________ is the ability to make use of strengths and assets to respond to challenges, rather than focusing on limitations and weaknesses.


______ theory states that life's challenges can be positive experiences when viewed as an opportunity to learn and grow from these challenges

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