70 terms

Perception Interventions

A person's cognitive interpretation of events
When people are complimented, they often feel embarrassed
attitude of gratitude
Focusing on things about which to be grateful
Being an optimist can keep you healthy. Alternatively, being a pessimist can contribute to your being unhealthy.
Humor has been shown to be an effective means of coping with stress
palliative care
Care designed to make patients comfortable rather than cure them
ex.Terminally ill patients who receive hospice are receive this care
Patients with end stage renal disease who had a greater sense of humor decreased their odds of survival by 31 percent over patients with less of a sense of humor
type A
A large body of research relates this behavior to the early onset of coronary heart disease
type A behavior
A cluster of behaviors associated with the development of coronary heart disease
type A behavior pattern
_______________ is "a particular complex of personality traits, including excessive competitive drive, aggressiveness, impatience, and a harrying sense of time urgency" as well as a " free floating, but well rationalized form of hostility , and almost always a deep seated insecurity"
Friedman, Rosenman
The two cardiologists who defined and named the type A behavior pattern
retrospective studies
Comparisons after the development of the disease
type b
Behavior pattern that is not excessively competitive, with no free-floating hostility and no sense of time urgency. Also develops coronary heart disease
impatience/irritability, achievement striving
What are two components of type A behavior that appear to operate in opposing directions
achievement striving
________________ is characterized by job dedication, target settings, and hard driving behavior.
type A
Hostility towards people and even inanimate objects such as parking meters, is a characteristic of _____________behavior pattern
polyphasic behavior
_____________ is doing two or more things at the same time. This often distracts from the attention each needs and deserves. It also is one component of the Type A behavior
self esteem
How highly one regards oneself
type C
A personality type proposed to be associated with the development of cancer. Characterized by denial and suppression of emotion, in particular anger, resentment and hostility, and pathological niceness.
type d
A personality type associated with the development of and death from coronary heart disease. Characterized by negative emotion and inhibited self-expression
type D
People possessing ______ for depressed are anxious, irritable , and insecure
The very essence of stress management requires confidence in yourself and in your decisions to control your effectively
self efficacy
An important concept related to self esteem is ______, which is the belief that you can be successful at doing something.
Research have found that self efficacy is related to recovery from post traumatic stress disorder, academic success in college, occupational stress, depression, life satisfaction, and less stress and burnout.
external locus of control
The perception that one has little control over events that affect one's life
internal locus of control
The perception that one has control over events that affect one's life
cocreator perception deficiency
The belief that one is either the victim of circumstances or the master of circumstances , each of which is erroneous
An unrealistic fear that manifests itself in physiological arousal and behaviors to avoid or escape the anxiety-provoking stimulus
_______ operationally as an unrealistic fear resulting in physiological arousal and accompanied by the behavioral signs of escape or avoidance
worry, emotionality
Test anxiety has been conceptualized to consist of two major components: ________, and ______.. The first component is concern about failing. The second component refers to unpleasant feelings and physiological reactions brought on by tests
state anxiety
Anxiety that is either temporary in nature or specific to a particular stimulus
trait anxiety
A general sense of anxiety not specific to a particular stimulus
panic disorder
A condition in which feelings of terror arise from unrealistic fear, resulting in symptoms such as feeling numb, sweaty, weak, and faint.
panic disorder
People with __________ have feelings of terror that strike suddenly and repeatedly with no warning.
Panic disorder affects about 6 million adult Americans and is twice as common in women as in men.
an excessive fear of situations in which having a panic attack seems likely and/or dangerous or embarrassing
cognitive behavioral therapy
____________ also called exposure therapy, involves very slowly exposing patients to the fearful situation until they become desensitized to it.
Social phobia
Overwhelming fear and excessive self-consciousness in everyday situations; a chronic fear of being watched by others and not performing well. Fear of public speaking is an example
blushing , profuse sweating, trembling , nausea, difficulty talking
What are 5 physical symptoms that often accompany the intense anxiety of social phobia?
Women and men are equally like to develop social phobia
specific phobia
An intense fear of a specific situation that poses little or no actual danger. Fear of elevators is an example
Specific phobia usually first appear during childhood or adolescence and tend to persist into adulthood
environmental planning, relabeling, self talk, thought stopping, systematic desensitization, cognitive restructuring, the ABCDE technique
Give 7 examples of coping techniques for anxiety
systematic desensitization
Developed by Joseph Wolpe
Involves imagining or experiencing an anxiety provoking scene while practicing a response incompatible with anxiety
Systematic desensitization
Either imagining or encountering an anxiety-provoking stimulus while practicing relaxation
fear hierarchy
A list of small steps to move through an anxiety provoking stimulus
fear hierarchy
The_________is a sequence of small steps that leads up to the anxiety provoking event.
armchair desensitization
A form of systematic desensitization in which the stimulus is imagined
in vivo desensitization
A form of systematic desensitization in which the stimulus is actually encountered
armchair desensitization, in vivo desensitization
You can employ the desensitization procedure in a relatively safe environment by imaging yourself at an airport using _____________, or use it at an actual airport (__________________________________)
Cognitive restructuring
___________ enables us to see the situation more accurately, and to perceive the consequences or outcomes as less catastrophic.
cognitive restructuring
A method of coping with anxiety that involves thinking about an anxiety provoking event as less threatening
ABCDE technique
a method of coping with anxiety that consists of examining irrational beliefs
Albert Ellis
What psychologist theorized the ABCDE technique?
activating agent, belief system, consequences, dispute irrational beliefs, effect
What are the 5 parts of the ABCDE technique?
activating agent, belief system, consequences, dispute irrational beliefs, effect
The ABCDE techniques involves the following steps
~__________________(identify the stressor)
~________________( identify rational and irrational beliefs)
~_______________(mental, physical, and behavioral)
~___________(changed consequences)
self talk
cognitive technique; suppression of negative, anxiety-provoking thoughts and replaced with positive, "coping" statements
The ability to identify and make use of strengths and assets to respond to challenges , thereby growing as an individual
The tendency to involve oneself in whatever one is doing,
involves the tendency to believe that and act as if one can influence the course of events
involves the related expectations tat is normal for the life to change and that changes will stimulate personal growth
People who the "three C's are termed _____ and seem to be able to withstand the onslaught of stressor.
control, commitment, challenge
What are the three c's to hardiness?
selective awareness
______________ is deciding on whether to focus on the good or on the bad in a situation or person. Focusing on the good is less stressful
A state of mind and body that includes three factors: commitment, control, and challenge
Individuals with low self-esteem experience stress from not thinking well of themselves, not trusting their own opinions and acting non assertively
locus of control
___________ is the perception of the amount of control you believe you have over events that affect your life
Albert Ellis developed the _______ techniques for managing anxiety. It consists of examining irrational beliefs that make us anxious, changing those beliefs, and envisioning more positive consequences of our actions
__________ is the ability to make use of strengths and assets to respond to challenges, rather than focusing on limitations and weaknesses.
______ theory states that life's challenges can be positive experiences when viewed as an opportunity to learn and grow from these challenges