Soft tissue and muscle cancer
Most common soft tissue of adulthood.
Malignant tumor of the deep soft tissue of lower extremities and retroperitineum: 40-60 yrs.
Characteristic histological cell of liposarcoma. Has a scallop nucleus
Containing or resembling mucus
Has characteristics of malignancy but is benign.
Rapidly growing, poorly defined, fibroblasts are arranged randomly
Superficial fibramatosis lesion
nodules of fibrous tissues with poorly defined fascicles.
Palmar, Plantar, Penile.
No mutations of APC or beta-catenin.
nodular thickening of palmar fascia
Deep fibromatosis lesion
rapidly growing with infiltrative features.
Associated with APC or beta-catenin genes.
Recurrent but not necessarily malignant.
malignant and rare.
Herring bone pattern
May arise as radiation induced sarcoma or post burn scar
Herring bone pattern
Classical of fibrosarcoma. Hyperchromatic nuclei with increases N/C ratio. Spindle shaped
benign fibrous tumor in skin with histocytes. Storiform (pinwheel) pattern. Foam cells.
malignant soft tissue tumor which used to be considered most common sarcoma of adults. More common in males. Storiform architecture. Use IHC stains
Malignant Skeletal muscle tumor. Most common in adolescents. Aggressive. 3 types: embryonal, alveolar, pleomorphic
Diagnostic cell for rhabdomyosarcoma. Tadpole or strap cells.
most common rhabdomyosarcoma. Grapes in vagina. Affects the cambium layer.
Worst prognosis of rhabdomyosarcoma. Central cells degenerate, drop out, and then look like alveoli cells. Midadolescents
Proximal portions of the extremities. Large multi-nucleated eosonophilic tumor cells
20-40 years old. Develop on lower extremities (knee and thigh). May have calcifications that can be seen on x-ray/ Biphasic
Satellite cell/stem cell
Type 1 muscle fibers
1 slow, fat, red ox.
Type 2 muscle fibers
2 fast skinny white breasts
myophagocytosis which causes muscle distrophy and collagen deposition and fatty infiltration
eating part of muscle
increased load, muscle fiber splitting, large fibers divide along segment
loss of neural input. Create a triangular shape
Spinal muscular dystophy
Infantile motor Neuron Disease. No triangular atrophy.
Spinal Muscular dystrophy
clustering of small, atrophic fiber bundles
Wednig Hoffman disease
loss of spinal motor neurons
progressive muscle weakness and wasting
deletion of dystrophin
mutation of dystrophin
most common adult muscular dystophy. Type 1 fibers atrophy. Facial muscle weakness
rare ion-channel myopathy
inflammatory disease of skin. Lilac/heliotrope skin rash. Upper eyelids with periorbital edema. Capillaries attacked by antibodies
inflammation found in endomysium. No evidence of vascular damage. Looks cell mediated.
autoimmune disease of the neuromuscular junction. Affected by loss of acetylcholine