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41 terms

Soft tissue and muscle cancer

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Lipoma
Fat tumor
benign
Most common soft tissue of adulthood.
Liposarcoma
Malignant tumor of the deep soft tissue of lower extremities and retroperitineum: 40-60 yrs.
Lipoblast
Characteristic histological cell of liposarcoma. Has a scallop nucleus
Myxoid
Containing or resembling mucus
Nodular Fascitis
Has characteristics of malignancy but is benign.
"Reactive pseudosarcoma"
Rapidly growing, poorly defined, fibroblasts are arranged randomly
Superficial fibramatosis lesion
nodules of fibrous tissues with poorly defined fascicles.
Palmar, Plantar, Penile.
No mutations of APC or beta-catenin.
Dupuytren Contracture
nodular thickening of palmar fascia
Peyronie Disease
Penile fibromatosis
Deep fibromatosis lesion
rapidly growing with infiltrative features.
Associated with APC or beta-catenin genes.
Recurrent but not necessarily malignant.
Fibrosarcoma
malignant and rare.
Herring bone pattern
May arise as radiation induced sarcoma or post burn scar
Herring bone pattern
Classical of fibrosarcoma. Hyperchromatic nuclei with increases N/C ratio. Spindle shaped
Dermatofibroma
benign fibrous tumor in skin with histocytes. Storiform (pinwheel) pattern. Foam cells.
Malignant Fibrohistiocytoma
malignant soft tissue tumor which used to be considered most common sarcoma of adults. More common in males. Storiform architecture. Use IHC stains
Rhabdomyosarcoma
Malignant Skeletal muscle tumor. Most common in adolescents. Aggressive. 3 types: embryonal, alveolar, pleomorphic
t(2:13)
Rhabdomyosarcoma
Rhabdomyoblast
Diagnostic cell for rhabdomyosarcoma. Tadpole or strap cells.
Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma
most common rhabdomyosarcoma. Grapes in vagina. Affects the cambium layer.
Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma
Worst prognosis of rhabdomyosarcoma. Central cells degenerate, drop out, and then look like alveoli cells. Midadolescents
Pleomorphic Rhabdomyosarcoma
Proximal portions of the extremities. Large multi-nucleated eosonophilic tumor cells
Synovial Sarcoma
20-40 years old. Develop on lower extremities (knee and thigh). May have calcifications that can be seen on x-ray/ Biphasic
t(X,18)
Synovial Sarcoma
Pericyte
Satellite cell/stem cell
Type 1 muscle fibers
1 slow, fat, red ox.
Type 2 muscle fibers
2 fast skinny white breasts
Segmenal necrosis
myophagocytosis which causes muscle distrophy and collagen deposition and fatty infiltration
Myophagocytosis
eating part of muscle
Fiber hypertrophy
increased load, muscle fiber splitting, large fibers divide along segment
Denervation atrophy
loss of neural input. Create a triangular shape
Spinal muscular dystophy
Infantile motor Neuron Disease. No triangular atrophy.
Chromosome 5
Spinal Muscular dystrophy
Panfascicular atrophy
clustering of small, atrophic fiber bundles
Wednig Hoffman disease
loss of spinal motor neurons
Muscular Dystrophy
progressive muscle weakness and wasting
Duchenne MD
deletion of dystrophin
Becker MD
mutation of dystrophin
Xp21
Muscular dystrophy
Myotonic dystrophy
most common adult muscular dystophy. Type 1 fibers atrophy. Facial muscle weakness
Malignant hyperthermia
rare ion-channel myopathy
Dermatomyositis
inflammatory disease of skin. Lilac/heliotrope skin rash. Upper eyelids with periorbital edema. Capillaries attacked by antibodies
Polymyositis
inflammation found in endomysium. No evidence of vascular damage. Looks cell mediated.
Myasthenia Gravis
autoimmune disease of the neuromuscular junction. Affected by loss of acetylcholine