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Set of flashcards for Anatomy BIOL 2401 at SHSU






pain, dense on skin and mucous membrane, all organs but not brain


physical deformation



general receptors

widely distributed over body

Special receptors

complex sense organs of head


origin in internal organs


origin of stimuli position/movement in muscles/joints


eyes, ears sense external stimuli


nerve endings not wrapped

Free nerve endings

skin, pain, heat, cold

Tactile discs

skin, light touch

Hair receptors

entwined in hair follicles, light touch, movement of hair


nerve endings wrapped in glial cells or connective tissue

Tactile Corpuscle

light touch and texture, hairless skin (palm)

Riffuni corpuscle

heavy touch, joint movements, dermis

Lamellated corpuscle

deep pressure, stretch, tickle, vibration, deep dermis, viscera

First pain

Myelinated, sharp pain, 40-100 ft/s

Second pain

unmyelinated, dull pain, 1-7 ft/s

Referred pain

visceral pain seems to be felt in other areas of body such as skin, convergence of neural pathways

Taste buds

about 4,000, tongue, soft palate, pharynx, epiglottis, cheeks, taste 80% smell, sweet, sour, bitter, salty, umami, on papillae

Foliate papillae

parallel ridges on sides of tongue

Fungiform papillae

3 taste buds per papillae, widely distributed, food texture

Filiform papillae

nongustatory, cats use to groom, most abundant, food texture

Vallate papillae

V at back of tongue, 7-12

Taste pore

hole on epithelial surface of tongue



Olfactory mucosa

detects scent, contains 10-20 million olfactory neurons


develops from first pharyngeal pouch


response to vibrating air molecules


sense of motion and balance

Outer ear

funnel for conducting sound to tympanic membrane


fleshy outer ear

Auditory canal

passage through temporal bone

Gaurd hairs

protect outer end of canal


earwax, stops foreign particles from entering canal

Tympanic membrane

middle ear, vibrates in response to sound

Auditory (eustachian) tube

passage to nasopharynx

Auditory ossicles

Malleus, Incus, Stapes, middle ear

Bony labyrinth

filled with perilymph, similar to CSF, inner ear


balance, inner ear

Semicircular canals

detect rotation of head, inner ear


hearing, inner ear, filled with endolymph, sound waves generate nerve signals

Membranous labyrinth

interconnecting sacs and ducts, inner ear


transparent mucous membrane covering inner surface of eyelid and anterior surface of eyeball, keeps eye moist

Lacrimal gland

12 ducts, tears cleanse and lubricate eye, deliver oxygen and nutrients

Superior rectus

movement up and laterally

Medial rectus

movement medially

Lateral rectus

movement laterally

Inferior rectus

movement down and medially

Superior oblique

passes through trochlea, movement down and laterally

Inferior oblique

movement up and laterally

Aqueous humor

fluid secreted by ciliary body, posterior chamber between iris and lens, anterior chamber between cornea and iris


suspended, tension flattens lens

Vitreous body

transparent body fills vitreous chamber (posterior), keeps retina smoothly pressed against inner surface


thin transparent membrane, posterior, detached causes blurry vision and blindness if separated

Optic disc

convergence of retinal nerve fibers


night vision, saturated and nonfunctional in ordinary light


day vision, color vision, blue, green, orange-yellow, dependent on wavelength


leprosy bacteria blocks sense of pain in affected areas, individuals neglect minor wounds, finger/ toe loss


causes nerve damage, lesions can cause finger/toe/limb loss

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