Population 82 million, GDP per capita $35, 613. Economic strengths: technology production, metals, coal, chemicals, machinery, vehicles. World's 5th most powerful economy. Range of princely sattes joined throughout the 19th century to form modern Germany, lost two major world wars of the 20th century, the second following its deplorable Nazi era. After 1945 the state was split into a free-market West and communist East Germany, the west developing a major economy. States reunited in 1990. Communist state with population over 1.3 billion, GDP per capita $5, 962. Mainly produces rice and other agricultural products, metals, textiles, and manufactured good. Dynasties date back to 2200 BC, present government since 1949. Borders many states, more than any other state in the world. Two internal colonies in Tibet and Muslim northeast. Ethnic Han Chinese predominate. Officially atheist, but Taoism, Buddhism, Islam, and Christianity, and traditional spiritual disciplines are practiced. Population 62 million, GDP per capita $34,045. Western Europe's leading agricultural producer, broad industrial, tourism, and cultural strengths. Formerly Gavi, ruled by the Romans in the 1st century, then by Capetian kings from the 3rd to the 14th centuries. Leader in the crusades, participant in many European wars. Under Louis XIV, 1643-1715, France was Europe's major power. French revolution of 1789 was the world's most influential early overthrow of royal rule, led to chaos. Napoleon (1769-1821) led France to glory/19th century mixed industrial development. Extensive worldwide colonies established in the late 19th century, substantial losses in both World Wars. Majority catholic, large immigrant populations. Population 158 million people, GDP per capita $2082. Unhealthy dependency on oil exportation. ~250 ethnic groups, main three of which are the Hausa in the Muslim north, Ibo in the Christian southeast, and Yoruba in the traditional and Christian west. Official language is English, national languages are widely spoken. Major source of the Atlantic slave trade for centuries, British colonial period lasted from 1890-1960, since then independent Nigeria has experienced government upheaval, military dictatorship, environmental degradation, and kleptocratic civilian rule. Population 1.2 million, GDP per capita $2, 972. Major cities New Delhi and Bombay. Enormous ethnic and linguistic diversity, 82% Hindu, 12% Muslim, 6% other religions. Religious, caste, and ethnic conflict at times prominent. Colonial possession of the British for centuries, gained independence in 1947, also partitioned along religious lines into India and Pakistan. Generally low economic development with some major agricultural and industrial strengths. Historically governed by a socialist democracy, more recently a Hindu nationalist government.