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Biology Unit 3
Terms in this set (67)
thin, flexible barrier around a cell; regulates what enters and leaves the cell and is selectively permeable; is made primarily of phospholipids
These and other molecules in the membrane affect the membrane affect the membrane's function: Has many functions
A molecule that is a constituent of the inner bilayer of biological membranes, having a polar, hydrophilic head and a nonpolar, hydrophobic tail.
A type of lipid, helps to stabilize the membrane and maintain the membrane and luidity
Often act as ID tags helping cells to identify other cells (example: your cells knowing they are part of one organism.)
Made of protein fibers and holds the membrane in place
Outside the cell is a sticky mix of protein fibers and sugars that hold the membrane in place and help connect cells together
3 common activities of proteins in the membrane
1) Act as enzymes, catalyzing important chemical reactions
2) Recieve signals (ex. protein hormones like insulin or EPO)
3) Transport substances across the membrane
Movement of particles from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration
When there is equal concentration on both sides of a membrane
movement of molecules across a membrane requiring energy to be expended by the cell
Diffusion across a membrane, the cell does not need to use energy; powered simply by random molecule motion
The diffusion of water across a membrane; this is a type of facilitated diffusion
Molecule moves through a specialized transport protein; each type of transport protein is designed to move (a) specific molecule(s) or ion(s)
Two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds
Charged atoms like Na+)
A transport protein in the plasma membrane of a plant or animal cell that specifically facilitates the diffusion of water across the membrane (osmosis).
Control of the amount of water in cells: Isotonic, Hypotonic, and Hypertonic
One solution has the same concentration of solute as another
One solution has a lower concentration of solute(greater concentration of water) than another
One solution has a greater concentration of solute (lower concentration of water) than another
the substance that is dissolved
substance in which a solute is dissolved to form a solution
a mixture in which one substance is dissolved in another
The movement of molecules into the cell via vesicles (small sacs of membrane)
the movement of a molecules out of the cell via vesicles (small sacs of membrane)
A small bubble of membrane containing some compounds
body system consisting of the heart and blood vessels that circulate blood through the body
The releasing of energy from the breakdown of molecules in food in the presence of oxygen is the basic function of a respiratory system.
Left Oxygenated Right Deoxygenated
Vena Cavas->Right Atrium->Right Ventricle -> Pulmonary Arteries
Pulmonary Veins->Left Atrium->Left Ventricle->Aorta
Superior Vena Cava
Brings deoxygenated blood into right atrium from upper body
Inferior Vena Cava
Brings deoxygenated blood into right atrium from lower body
Brings oxygenated blood from right ventricle to lungs
Brings oxygenated blood from lungs to left atria
Brings oxygenated blood from left ventricle out into arteries
Prevent blood from flowing backwards when moving through heart
The circulation of blood from the heart to the lungs and back
The circulation of blood from the heart to the rest of the body and back
A special group of cells located in the right atrium that start and maintain the pace of the contractions of the heart.
Have thick walls made of smooth muscle and connective tissue to help them withstand the pressure of heart contractions pushing blood against their walls. They carry blood away from the heart.
air sacs in the lungs
Very small and thin walled (one-cell thick)to allow them to get close to the body cells and exchange nutrients, wastes , oxygen, and carbon dioxide with body cells
Have walls made of connective tissue and smooth muscle and valves that prevent blood from flowing backwards as it travels back towards the heart.
3 functions of blood
Transport- red blood cells transport oxygen
Regulate- internal environment (body temp.)
Protection- white blood cells attack foreign substances or can help fight infections
How much blood in human body?
What percent of blood is body mass?
main energy source that cells use for most of their work
throat; passageway for food to the esophagus and air to the larynx
voice box; passageway for air moving from pharynx to trachea; contains vocal cords
The windpipe; a passage through which air moves in the respiratory system.
passageway leading from the trachea to a lung
the smallest tubes of the bronchus. Coming from the bronchi that contain clusters of alveoli at each end.
large, flat muscle at the bottom of the chest cavity that helps with breathing
The protein inside red blood cells that carries oxygen
A disease where fattu deposits build up in the artery walls. Untreated it can result in blocked arteries leading to a heart attack or stroke. A diet high in saturated fats can contribute to developing this disease.
Substances in the blood enter the nephron
Substances needed by the body are returned from the nephron to the blood
Some waste substances that were not filtered(which happens for various reasons) added to nephron
Removal of urine from the kidney and the body. Urine contains an important waste called urea as well as water and salts
The skin, lungs, kidneys, and liver(make urea from other wastes), make up this system
filter wastes from the blood while regulating water and salt levels in the body
a flap of tissue that prevents blood from flowing backwards
the fluid that the lymphatic system collects and returns to the bloodstream
Absorbs fluid lost (more than 3 L per day) from the circulatory system, transports it through lymph vessels and returns it to the circulatory system
functional unit of the kidney
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