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AP Environmental Science Atmosphere
Terms in this set (28)
Lowest layer of Earth's atmosphere. Lies about 10-20 km (5-10 miles)
The process by which radiation from a planet's atmosphere warms the planet's surface to a temperature above what it would be without its atmosphere
The buffer between the troposphere and the stratosphere
The layer of the earth's atmosphere above the troposphere, extending to about 20-50 km (12-30 miles) above the earth's surface
Traps the high-energy radiation of the sun, O3
The region of the earth's atmosphere above the stratosphere and below the thermosphere, between about 30 and 50 miles (50 and 80 km) in altitude.
The thinnest layer of the Earth's atmosphere, directly above the mesosphere and directly below the exosphere. Also known as the ionosphere
The day-to-day properties such as wind speed and direction, temperature, amount of sunlight, pressure, and humidity.
The weather conditions prevailing in an area in general or over a long period
Belts of air that distribute heat and moisture unevenly
Winds moving north from the equator in the Northern Hemisphere are deflected to the right or east, and winds moving south from the equator in the Southern Hemisphere are deflected to the left or west.
Solar energy warms Earth's surface, the heat is transferred to the atmosphere by radiation. The warmed gases expand, become less dense, and rise creating vertical currents
Creates surface winds
Temperature at which water vapor condenses into liquid
Rain, Snow, Hail, Sleet
Warm moist air rises into the cooler atmosphere, cooling to the dew point creating clouds and then precipitation. The coo drl air is now denser than the surrounding air, it now sinks to the earth's surface where is can be warmed, starting the cycle over again
Starts its cycle over the equator, where the warm moist air evaporates and rises into the atmosphere. The precipitation in that region is one cause of the abundant equatorial rainforests. The cool dry air then descends 30 degrees north and south of the equator, forming belts of deserts seen around those areas of latitude.
Winds that blow between about 30 degrees latitude and the equator are steady and strong, and travel at a speed about 11-13 mph
Areas about 30-35 degrees south or 30-35 degrees north with unpredictable winds
Areas about 5 degrees north and 5 degrees south with relatively little wind
High speed currents of wind that occur in the upper troposphere
Seasonal winds that are usually accompanied by very heavy rainfall
rain shadow effect
An air mass forced to rise due to an obstruction, e.g. mountain, water cools and precipitates before passing the obstruction. Once the mass is past the obstruction the air is devoid of moisture
Storms with wind speeds in excess of 80 mph or 130 kph in the Atlantic Ocean
Storms with wind speeds in excess of 80 mph or 130 kph in the Pacific Ocean
The normal trade winds are weakened or reversed because of the reversal of the high and low pressure regions on either side of the tropical Pacific
As air moves toward the equator to replace rising hot air, the moving air deflects to the west and helps move the surface water, allowing the upwelling
The alterations of atmospheric conditions the lead to El Niños or La Niñas