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97 terms

FSE2061 - Thanatology Final Review

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Psychology
the scientific study of behavior and mental processes
Psychological Perspectives
Structuralism, Functionalism, Behaviorism, Cognitive, Psychoanalytic, Humanistic, Biological, Psychological, Sociocultural
Psychologist
one who is trained in methods of psychological analysis, therapy, and research
Psychiatrist
A physician who specializes in the study, treatment, and prevention of mental disorders
Psychoanalyst
One who practices psychoanalysis
Psychotherapist
An individual trained or skilled in the management of psychological disorders
Structuralism
A theory founded by Wilhelm Wundt that deals with what the mind Is made of
Functionalism
Mainly founded by William James who emphasized the importance of what the mind does versus what it is made of.
Behaviorism
a psychological perspective whose explanations about learning are based on the relationship between observable behaviors and environmental events rather than on internal processes.
Psychological Perspectives
Structuralism, Functionalism, Behaviorism, Cognitive, Psychoanalytic, Humanistic, Biological, Psychological, Sociocultural
Area of specialization
Clinical, Cognitive, Counseling, Developmental, Educational, Personality, Social Psychology, Abnormal Psychology
Psychologist
one who is trained in methods of psychological analysis, therapy, and research
Psychiatrist
A physician who specializes in the study, treatment, and prevention of mental disorders
Psychoanalyst
One who practices psychoanalysis
Psychotherapist
An individual trained or skilled in the management of psychological disorders
Ego defense mechanisms
Denial, Displacement, Intellectualization, Projection, Rationalization, Reaction, Formation, Regression, Repression, Sublimation, Suppression
Social-cognitive and humanistic theories
Rogers person centered theory, Maslow's humanistic theory of self-actualization, Existential theory
Funeral service psychology
the study of human behavior as related to funeral service
Bereavement
the act or event of separation or loss that results in the experience of grief
Mourning
an adjustment process which involves grief or sorrow over a period of time and helps in the reorganization of the life of an individual following a loss or death of someone beloved
Grief
an emotion or set of emotions due to a loss
Emotions
feelings such as happiness, anger and grief created by brain patterns and bodily changes
Needs of the Bereaved
Confirm the reality, Express their emotions, Modify emotional ties with the deceased, Memorialize the person's life, Recognize and complete unfinished business, Receive emotional support, Be assured feelings are normal, Be accepted for where they are, Establish stability and security, Provide a basis for building new interpersonal relationships
purposes and values of a funeral ritual
Opportunity to receive and express love, Shows respect for the family, friends, and the deceased, Opportunity to express grief, Face to face confrontation with the death, Gain emotional support through sharing, Meet spiritual, psychological, and social needs, Opportunity for farewell, Reflection and recognition of deceased, Establishes stable social support network, Establishes socially accepted climate for mourning
Grief syndrome
a set of symptoms associated with loss (Eric Lindemann)
Symptoms of grief syndrome
Somatic or bodily stress of some type, Preoccupation with the image of the deceased, Guilt relating to the deceased or circumstances of the death, Hostile reaction, The inability to function as one had before the death
Grief Work (def.)
a process occurring with loss, aimed at loosening the attachment to the dead for reinvesting in the living.
"The attachment theory"
John Bowlby
Bowlby's Theory of Attachment
describes attachment behavior as any behavior people develop and maintain that enables them to be close to another individual.
Elizabeth Kubler-Ross
Theorist for the "Five Stages of Death and Dying"
Five Stages of Death and Dying (Kubler-Ross)
Denial and isolation, Anger (def.) - blame directed at another person, Bargaining, Depression, Acceptance
J. William Worden
Theorist for the "Tasks of Mourning"
Tasks of Mourning
four tasks that the bereaved must go through to successfully manage their grief: To accept the reality of the loss, To experience the pain of grief and to express emotions associated with it, To adjust to the environment in which the deceased is missing, To withdraw emotional energy and reinvest it in another relationship
Grief Counseling
helping people facilitate grief to a healthy completion of the tasks of grieving within a reasonable time frame.
Grief Therapy
specialized techniques which are used to help people with complicated grief reactions.
Manifestations of normal grief
feelings, physical sensations, cognitions, behaviors
Mediators of mourning
Who the person was, Nature of the attachment, Historical antecedents, Personality variables, Social variables, Concurrent stresses, Circumstantial factors influencing grief, Hospice, Living Will
Modes of death
Natural, accidental, suicide, homicide
Abnormal grief responses
Chronic grief, Delayed grief, Exaggerated grief, Masked grief, Disenfranchised Grief
Birth to two years
no comprehension of death
Two to five years
unable to understand the finality of death; death is like sleep or like taking a long journey
Six to nine years
may understand that death is final but may not accept it as something that happens to everyone; often personify death (i.e. boogeyman)
Nine to twelve
have the cognitive understanding to comprehend death as a final event.
Thirteen to eighteen
understand death as both final and inevitable, is irreversible and happens to everyone.
Types of counseling
information, situational and psychotherapy
Styles of counseling
directive and non-directive counseling
Non-Directive counseling
the style of counseling that that is most effective
Goals of grief counseling
To increase the reality of the loss (actualize),To help the counselee deal with both expressed and latent affect, To help the counselee overcome various impediments to readjust after loss, To help the counselee find a way to remember the deceased while feeling comfortable reinvesting in life
Counseling principles and procedures
Help the survivor actualize the loss, Help the survivor to identify and express feelings, Assist living without the deceased, Help find meaning in the loss, Facilitate emotional relocation of the deceased, Help find meaning in the loss, Facilitate emotional relocation of the deceased
Essential skills
Attending or Active listening, Paraphrasing, Clarifying, Perception checking, Leading, Questioning, Reflecting feelings, Informing, Summarizing
Denial
arguing against an anxiety provoking stimuli by stating it doesn't exist
Rationalization
supplying a logical or rational reason as opposed to the real reason
Displacement
Taking out impulses on a less threatening target
Projection
Placing unacceptable impulses in yourself onto someone else
Regression
returning to a previous stage of development
Sublimation
acting out unacceptable impulses in a socially acceptable way
Guilt
blame directed towards one's self based on real or unreal conditions
Anger
blame directed toward another person
Crisis Qualities and Characteristics
1. A period of heightened psychological accessibility which will last for no longer than four to six weeks
2. Usually stimulated by an outside precipitator or emotionally hazardous situation
3. Crises are normal reactions to emotionally hazardous situations, not signs of mental illness
4. The individual's appraisal (perception) of the emotionally hazardous situation greatly determines both the occurrence and seriousness of the crisis
5. The more seriously threatening an individual's appraisal of an event, the greater the likelihood for primitive coping behaviors
6. Persons in crisis tend to pull away from contact with significant others
Crisis
A highly emotional temporary state in which an individual's feelings of anxiety, grief, confusion and pain impair his or her ability to act.
Potential Crisis
Suicide
Homicide
A.I.D.S.
S.I.D.S.
Euthanasia
Disaster
There are unique dimensions of grief associated with _____.
Steps in communication
Establishing contact
Notification
Providing support
Catharsis
Establishing a network
Terminating the initial communication
Communicating with the mass media
Calm under pressure
Respected by officials
Credible to reporters
Low key
Accessible
Statistics
Mortality
Time factors
Seasonal influences
Racial considerations
Grieving challenges
Cause
Investigation and interrogation
Severity of loss
Relational problems
trust (and) empathy
A relationship of _____ and _______ is no less important in crisis intervention than in any other form of counseling
Funeral directors role (in crisis)
Attending behavior
Listening
Important to be non-judgmental in the early stages of developing a relationship
Responding
_______is one of the basic dimensions of all human interchange;
Focusing
Filtering out irrelevant data.
ABC Method
Achieving contact with the person in crisis
Boiling down the problems to it's essentials
Coping with the problem
Threat
A statement or action designed or perceived to create anxiety in an individual's life.
Anxiety
A state of tension, typically characterized by rapid heartbeat, shortness of breath and other similar ramifications of arousal of the autonomic nervous system.
(Ways of ) coping with the problem
Establishment of goals
Inventory of resources
Formulation of alternatives
Review and refinement
Action
Aftercare
Phone contact; not as good as personal contact
Personal contact: Best of all
Letters/Cards: 30 days, 90 days, 6 months and 1 yr
Literature (Pamphlets, Books, Audio-Visual)
Community Educational Programs: offer at home no charge
Professional aftercare Programs: get local listings
Referrals to Support Groups or Professional Therapists
Characteristics of Stress and Burnout
Exhaustion and loss of energy
Irritability and impatience
Cynicism and detachment
Physical complaints and depression
Disorientation and confusion
Omnipotence and feeling indispensable
Minimization and denial of feelings
Guidelines for the caregiver
Recognize that you are working in an area of care where the risk for burnout is high
Create periods of rest and renewal
Be compassionate with yourself about not being perfect
Practice setting limits and alleviate stresses you can do something about
Learn effective time-management skills
Work to cultivate a personal support system
Express the persona in both your work and play
Work to understand your motivation to work in Funeral Service
Develop healthy eating, sleeping, and exercise patterns
Strive to identify the unique ways in which your body informs you that you are stressed
Denial
arguing against an anxiety provoking stimuli by stating it doesn't exist
displacement
taking out impulses on a less threatening target
Intellectualization
avoiding unacceptable emotions by focusing on the intellectual aspects
projection
placing unacceptable impulses in yourself onto someone else
rationalization
supplying a logical or rational reason as opposed to the real reason
reaction formation
taking the opposite belief because the true belief causes anxiety
regression
returning to a previous stage of development
repression
pulling into the unconscious
sublimation
acting out unacceptable impulses in a socially acceptable way
suppression
pushing into the unconscious
Example of Denial
denying that your physician's diagnosis of cancer is correct and seeking a second opinion
Example of displacement
slamming a door instead of hitting as person, yelling at your spouse after an argument with your boss
Example of Intellectualization
focusing on the details of a funeral as opposed to the sadness and grief
Example of projection
when losing an argument, you state "You're just Stupid;" homophobia
rationalization
stating that you were fired because you didn't kiss up the the boss, when the real reason was your poor performance
Example of reaction formation
having a bias against a particular race or culture and then embracing that race or culture to the extreme
Example of regression
sitting in a corner and crying after hearing bad news; throwing a temper tantrum when you don't get your way
Example of repression
forgetting sexual abuse from your childhood due to the trauma and anxiety
Example of sublimation
sublimating your aggressive impulses toward a career as a boxer; becoming a surgeon because of your desire to cut; lifting weights to release 'pent up' energy
Example of suppression
trying to forget something that causes you anxiety