79 terms

PR Exam #2


Terms in this set (...)

4 essential steps of effective PR
a. Research
b. Planning
c. Communication
d. Measurement/ Evaluation
systematic investigation of a problem involving gathering evidence from samples to make inferences
it must be possible for other researchers to replicate out study and come to the same results
d. Exploratory
Focus groups. (ex. pretesting brand and product names in different cultures → often 10,000 different variations tested.)
audience research, research of market shares. It is used to describe characteristics of a population or phenomenon being studied. It does not answer questions about how/when/why the characteristics occurred.
examining the effect of one variable on another
Probability Sampling
each element of the population has a known and equal chance of being selected into the sample
non-probability sampling
one of the assumptions of probability sampling is violated (we assume they have TVs and internet)
-Nonprobability sampling techniques cannot be used to infer from the sample to the general population in statistical terms
Academic Research
funded through universities or foundations, done to answer broader theoretical questions
applied research
funded by corporate or political sponsors, done to answer a specific applied question. Conducted by academics, research departments, market research, or consulting companies
Primary research
- information gathered by the researchers through person-to-person interaction. Can be gathered through meetings one-on-one interviews, focus groups, surveys, etc.
secondary research
info gathered through available literature, publications, broadcast media, and other non-human sources
Quantitative research
"... numerical tabulations and statistical comparisons made possible by systematic surveys/polls, experiments ... or analysis of records. Data are used to test hypotheses and identify the strength of patterns observed using qualitative methods"
1. Surveys/Polls
Qualitative research
descriptions of cultural situations obtained from interviewing, focus groups, participant observation, and collection of oral and textual materials"
1. Focus groups
cross sectional research
research based on a sample drawn at a single point in time
longitudinal research
research based on one or multiple samples, with measurements taken at multiple points in time
Ways to use research
i. Achieve credibility with management
ii. Define/segment publics
iii. Formulate strategy
iv. Prevent crises
v. Monitor competition
vi. Generate publicity
vii. Measure success
viii. And, of course, to test messages
Must be strategic and systematic → Linking the big picture based on research. Planning involves the coordination of multiple methods.
8 elements of program planning
1. situation
2. objectives (goals)
3. audience
4. strategy (plan)
5. tactics (specific activities)
6. calendar/time table (when)
7. budget
8. education/measurement
informational goals
changing message exposure, comprehension, and/or retention
attitudinal/motivational goals
modify the way an audience feels
behavioral goals
the modification of a behavior
PR targets
a. One-on-one marketing - Facebook, google personalized ads
b. Small markets - 400,000$-600,00$
4. Other things to target...
a. Education level/income level, marital status, age/gender/ethnicity, location, religion, media use habits, political beliefs, etc.
b. This is why data is valuable; we can get more refined.
Brainstorming and breakout groups
1. Bring everyone up to speed on known info
2. Share goals and objectives
3. Creation of springboards from client and participants. (Springboard: a thing that lends impetus or assistance to a particular action, enterprise, or development.)
Smaller "creative meetings"
1. Ideas are fleshed out in greater detail
2. Thinking in terms that fit with advertising strategy (which may be through a different firm) or fit with other brands, etc.
When are key messages expected to be most meaningful to target audiences?
a. Seasonal timing
b. Holiday timing
c. Days-of-the-week timing
d. Hours-of-the-day timing
Three scheduling methods
a. Continuity - constant presence, you're always there
b. Fighting - you go away for a little bit and then you jump back into the scene (ex. Spirit Halloween store)
c. Pulsing - coca cola has a constant presence but they "pulse" around the summer and in the Christmas.
categories of budget
a. staff time (70%)
b. out-of-pocket expenses
execution! The process and means by which objectives are actually achieved and the process by which tactics area developed and implemented
Message exposure
intended audience exposed to message in intended form
Accurate dissemination
basic message remains intact as sent through various media and it reaches the correct publics
Acceptance of the message
audience pays attention, retains and accepts the message
behavoir change
make donation, purchase service, etc.
Grunig's phases on communication
audience receives, pays attention, understands, remembers, and acts on the message
earned media
Press releases, free media, journalists
paid media
Paid media is a great way to promote content in order to generate more earned media and can also be used to drive traffic directly to your owned media properties. (Ads)
owned media
public media
used to build awareness and credibility, one-way form of communication with low audience engagement, high reach and relatively low costs
a. Ex. Billboards, movie trailers, newspapers, magazines, etc.
controlled media
used to promote and provide greater detail than public media, smaller reach, somewhat higher levels of audience engagement, smaller reach, and moderate costs. More personalized.
ex: brochures, newsletters, direct mail, etc.
interactive media
used to respond to queries, engage audiences and exchange information, 2-way, high levels of audience engagement, moderate levels of reach, and moderate costs.
a. Ex. Email, blogs, wikis, websites, social media, etc.
motivate participants and reinforce existing attitudes, typically a 2-way communication with moderate audience engagement, low reach, and moderate costs
a. Ex. Meetings, conferences, contests, presentations, trade shows, etc.
one on one communication
obtain commitments, negotiate, and solve problems, two-way communication with high audience engagement, low reach, and high costs.
a. Ex. Personal visits, lobbying, telephone calls
theoretical perspectives
"what do people want from media?" Rather than what are media's impacts on people... why do you use your smartphone?
passive audiences
may only pay attention because they seek a diversion. May require stylish and creative massages to garner their attention
active audiences
already engaged in your message, so difference, more detail-based tactics likely to work best
audience attention is typically ____ at the beginning
The "sleeper effect"
you can get information from a source you don't trust, but a few days later, you remember the information rather than the incredibility of the source
Message context
making sure your message is backed up by youractions
Cognitive dissonance
we strive for consistency between our attitudes and our behaviors and we take steps to ensure this is the case
Low involvement
cues like source attractiveness can enhance credibility
high involvement
while high involvement groups will pay more attention to the actual logic of the message
best way to remember the message?
Five stage adaption process
awareness, interest, evaluation, trial, and adoption
advertising or other properly places media
ideally leads to an interest in publics to learn more about produce, service, or organization
consumer evaluates the idea or product in terms of needs and wants met
consumer samples the product or idea
idea or product is integrated into individual's life
Roger's diffusion of innovation - how does innovation spread
relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, trialability, and observability
relative advantage
is the innovation better than the idea it replaces?
is the innovation consistent with the needs of potential adopters
is the innovation easy to incorporate for adopte
can the innovation be experiences on a limited basis first
are the results of the innovation visible to others
the evaluation of results against the agreed-upon objectives established during planning and the manner by which we collect PR-related data during the research process. How'd it go?
Informational objectives
may need to focus on "message dissemination" or "audience exposure"
motivational objectives
may require public opinion surveys to determinehow audience attitudes shifted
behavioral objectives
may require sales data, or self-report survey data
Measurement of production/dissemination
i. Count how many releases, photos, pitch letters, etc. were made within a specified time frameii. Quantity rather than quality
Advertising equivalency
Space/time x advertising ratea. If you took up 500 column mentions and it is 1$ for each normally, then your company gained 500$ worth of PR
cost per person
super bowl ad costs - reach millions tho
systematic tracking
Analyze the volume and content of media placements, can get a tone of coverage, comparisons to competitors, percentage of time stories mention key phrases of information2. Essentially, we can statistically model the coverage
audience awareness and attitude
survey based
audience action
typically self report measure of desired outcomes/behaviors
social media leads
tracking web traffic for all your sources and identifying top social sources
engagement duration
time spent on page
bounce rate
how quickly peop;le leave
activity ratio
proportion of active to passive members
Barcelona principles
global standards and practices