Terms in this set (45)
The emotion of anger usually appears at the age of:
Which of the following emotions requires the greatest sophistication in an infant?
Which of the following emotions are apparent at birth?
pleasure and pain
Which of the following develops at around 6 weeks of age?
the social smile
At 6 weeks, Jessica's most recent emotional reaction is likely to be:
a social smile.
An increased level of cortisol is associated with an infant's:
When a baby is upset because a caregiver is leaving, the baby is exhibiting:
An infant's distress at an unfamiliar person is called:
If we place a dot of rouge on an 18-month-old's nose and stand the child in front of a mirror, she may then touch her nose. This shows that the child has some:
Rex is 3 months old. According to psychoanalyst Margaret Mahler, he views himself as:
part of his mother.
Which specific area of the cortex in the brain is responsible for emotional self-regulation?
the anterior cingulate gyrus
A typical activity of the oral stage is:
According to psychoanalytic theory, the prime focus of pleasure in early infancy is:
A child fixated in the oral stage may become an adult who:
A toddler in Freud's anal stage would also be at Erikson's:
autonomy versus shame and doubt stage.
In Erikson's theory, the infant's earliest task is described as that of:
learning trust or mistrust.
The first crisis of life, according to Erikson, is:
trust vs. mistrust.
Erikson's second stage of development is called:
autonomy vs. shame and doubt.
Failure to develop self-rule over one's own actions is most closely identified with:
shame and doubt.
The autonomy versus shame and doubt crisis involves the child's:
trying to control his or her own actions.
Claire is 1 year old and lives in a noisy, loving family home with her parents and four siblings. She receives much positive attention and has a trusting relationship with her family. According to Piaget, she will likely develop which of the following?
a cognitive schema that families are as loving and loud as her working model
"Constitutionally based individual differences in emotions, activity, and self-control" would be a useful and appropriate definition of:
Concerning temperament and personality, research has found that:
temperament is linked to biological patterns that appear in infancy.
Margarita and Roberto are warm, nurturing parents who held their baby all of the time and cradled him. They are exhibiting:
When Caitlin falls and hurts herself, she runs to her mother crying. Rather than comforting Caitlin, her mother offers her a toy to distract her. Her mother is a(n):
Distal parenting tends to produce children who are:
Proximal parenting tends to produce children who are:
When parents find a way to provide a smooth interaction between their child's temperament and his social, family, and school life, they have proved:
goodness of fit.
When parents detect an emotion from an infant's facial expressions and body motions, and then they respond, the infant learns to connect a(n) ______ state with a(n) ______ expression.
Coordinated interaction between caregiver and infant is called:
Victor and Rosa want to enhance their synchrony with their 6-month-old daughter. They can best do this by:
imitating her vocal and facial expressions.
An affectional tie that an infant forms with a caregiver defines:
From birth to about 6 weeks, newborns signal their needs to caregivers through crying and body movements. According to your text, which stage of attachment is this?
Renee is in the first grade. When she makes a craft project in school, she brings it home and her parents display it proudly in the living areas of the house. What type of attachment is this?
Which of the following is a sign of secure attachment?
a child's attempt to be close to the caregiver after a period of exploration
Carrie is being held by her father. She is smiling at him one minute and then, unexpectedly, she slaps his face. This is a sign of which type of attachment?
Jerome clings to his mother and can't be soothed when she returns. Jerome is exhibiting:
A 9-month-old explores new environments when her mother is present but shows distress when her mother leaves the room. The child's behavior illustrates:
Ruby does not notice when her mother leaves the day care center and ignores her mother when she returns. Ruby's behavior is characteristic of:
Secure attachment makes a toddler:
willing to explore.
Amy's mother has been struggling with postpartum depression since Amy's birth one year ago. Given this situation, Amy is at risk for developing which type of attachment?
Emily and Ryan are 18-month-old twins. Their mother has been drinking heavily since her husband left her when the twins were 6 weeks old. Emily and Ryan are likely to develop which type of attachment?
Recent research has indicated that once an infant has become securely attached to an adult:
attachment status could change depending upon circumstances.
A baby searches the faces of her parents to see how to respond in unfamiliar situations. This is called:
Infant day care is of high quality if caregivers emphasize, among other things: