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An individual living thing
unicellular organisms lacking a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles; circular DNA
domain of prokaryotic organisms that are biochemically and genetically distinct from bacteria
domain of unicellular prokaryotes that have cell walls containing peptidoglycans
halophilic archaea, lives where there's high salt concentrations
light absorbing molecules
(adenosine triphosphate) main energy source that cells use for most of their work
a group of organisms so similar to one another that they can breed and produce fertile offspring
diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
Super bacterium that survives extreme conditions & also survives 3000x more radiation than humans can.
Extremophile: Grow in pH of 0.3, acidic enough to dissolve metal
having or consisting of a single cell
Ocean dwelling bacterium. Largest bacterium discovered. Can be seen with naked eye.
A structural polysaccharide of cell walls, consisting of glucose monomers joined by b-1, 4-glycosidic linkages.
complex carbohydrate that makes up the cell walls of fungi; also found in the external skeletons of arthropods
A protein-carbohydrate compound that makes the cell walls of bacteria rigid
large compound formed from combinations of many monomers
small building block molecules
Groups of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds
building blocks of matter
anything that has mass and takes up space
large molecules consisting of a lipid and a polysaccharide joined by a covalent bond. Found in the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria
elevated body temperature
A condition in which the circulatory system fails to provide sufficient circulation to enable every body part to perform its function; also called
a form of staphylococci that commonly infects wounds and causes serious problems such as toxic shock syndrome or produces food poisoning
gelatinous sheath surrounding the cell walls of certain bacteria
saclike photosynthetic membrane found in chloroplasts
short, thick outgrowth of a bacterium that allows it to attach to another bacterium
a structure that evolves and functions in one environmental context but that can perform additional functions in a new environment
an antibiotic (trade name Achromycin) derived from microorganisms of the genus Streptomyces and used broadly to treat infections
type of asexual reproduction in which an organism replicates its DNA and divides in half, producing two identical daughter cells
proteins embedded in the cell membrane
A virus that infects bacteria; also called a phage.
Combing segments of DNA from at least two diffrent organisms.
A temporary union of two organisms for the purpose of DNA transfer
A plasmid that codes for the pilus and other genes needed for DNA
copy and transfer in conjugation; short for "fertility factor."
rod-shaped gram-negative enterobacteria, -food poison, shigellosis
an organism that uses light energy to generate ATP and produce organic compounds from inorganic substances.
obtain energy from chemicals
..., organisms that get their carbon directly from the inorganic molecule carbon dioxide
..., Organisms that depend on other organisms for their food
Cells near the surface of the green parts of stems and leaves that contain large numbers of chloroplasts.
an organism that uses Light energy to generate ATP and obtains organic compounds from other organisms.
an organism that uses energy from chemical reactions to generate ATP and produce organic compounds from inorganic substances.
specialized cells that produce nitrogen-fixing enzymes
the study of evolutionary relationships among organisms
the discipline that uses DNA and other molecular data to determine evolutionary relationships
The scientific study of how living things are classified
the practice of analyzing DNA from environmental samples without isolating intact organisms