Terms in this set (65)
figures of speech with an unexpected twist in the meaning of words.
Using a vaguely suggestive, physical object to embody a more general idea
Using a part of a physical object to represent the whole object
ex. "Twenty eyes watched our every move"
ex. "A hungry stomach has no ears"
Using one verb with two or more different objects, changing the verb's initial meaning:
Giving human qualities to inanimate objects
ex. "His thundering shout could split rocks."
A type of meiosis (understatement) in which the writer uses a statement in the negative to create the effect
ex. "You know, Einstein is not a bad scientist."
Mixing one type of sensory input with another in an impossible way
ex. "The scent of the rose rang like a bell through the garden."
Oxymoron (plural oxymora) / paradox
Using contradiction in a manner that oddly makes sense
ex. "Without laws, we can have no freedom."
Figures of speech that deal with word order, syntax, letters, and sounds, rather than the meaning of words.
Similar patterns of grammatical structure and length.
ex. "King Alfred tried to make the law clear, precise, and equitable."
Two parallel structures
ex. "The bigger they are, the harder they fall."
Three parallel structures
ex. "That government of the people, by the people, and for the people shall not perish from the earth."
Antithesis (plural: antitheses)
Balancing contrary ideas, often by means of a balanced sentence.
-contrast of opposites: "Evil men fear authority; good men cherish it."
-contrast of degree: "One small step for a man, one giant leap for all
Inverted word order from what one expects
ex. "One ad does not a survey make."
Repetition in reverse order
ex. "One should eat to live, not live to eat."
ex. "Fair is foul, foul is fair"
Taking parallelism and deliberately reversing it, creating a "crisscross" pattern
ex. "Naked I rose from the earth; to the grave I fall clothed."
Omitting a word implied by the previous clause
ex. "The European soldiers killed six of the remaining villagers, the American soldiers, eight."
Using no conjunctions to create an effect of speed or simplicity
ex. "I came. I saw. I conquered.
ex. "Been there. Done that.
Using many conjunctions to achieve an overwhelming effect
Arrangement in order of increasing importance
ex. "Let a man acknowledge his obligations to himself, his family, his country, and his God."
The least important item appears anticlimactically in a place where the reader expects something grand or dramatic. Usually humorous.
ex. "I will do my best for God, for country, and for Yale."
Appeals to an audience's sense of morality/trust; Achieved by projecting an image of credibility
Appeals to emotion
An appeal to logic
Repetition of a sound in multiple words. If the first letters are the consonants that alliterate, the technique is often called head rhyme.
the repetition of consonant sounds
ex. many more merry men.
the repetition of vowel sounds
ex. refresh your zest for living.
Repetition of beginning clauses.
Repetition of a concluding word
ex. "He's learning fast; are you learning fast?"
A story or visual image with a second distinct meaning partially hidden behind its literal or visible meaning.
In written narrative- a continuous parallel between levels of meaning in a story so that its persons and events correspond to external ideas or events.
A word, phrase, or clause to which a following pronoun refers.
ex. IRIS tried, but she couldn't find the book.
The event or situation may be interpreted in more than one way.
Someone absent or dead or something nonhuman is addressed as if it were alive and present and could reply
A reference to a well-known person, place, event, literary work, or work of art
A comparison of two different things that are similar in some way
A brief narrative that focuses on a particular incident or event.
harsh, jarring noise
Rhythmic rise and fall
A list of things, people, or events.
Characteristic of writing that seeks the effect of informal spoken language, not formal or literary English.
A contrast or discrepancy between what is stated and what is really meant
A contrast or discrepancy between what is expected and what happens.
The audience knows something the character does not
A metaphor developed at great length, occurring frequently in or throughout a work
peculiar to or characteristic of a given language or a particular group of people
Any combination of disparate elements that form a unified, single image
A recurring element, such as an image, theme, or type of incident.
descriptive language in which words and sentence patterns create an effect or atmosphere
Show life as it is rather than life as it should be
Describes the variety, the conventions, and the purpose of the major kinds of writing. The four most common of these include exposition, argumentation, description, and narration.
Methods and techniques that speakers use to achieve their speaking goals
language that conveys a speaker's attitude or opinion with regard to a particular subject. Includes tone as part of the writer's purpose.
A question asked merely for rhetorical effect and not requiring an answer
A writer's attitude toward his or her subject matter revealed through diction, figurative language, and organization on the sentence and global levels.
a statement that is restrained in ironic contrast to what might have been said
the hidden or underlying meaning of something
A sentence that presents its central meaning in a main clause at the end; the particulars in the sentence are presented before the idea they support.
-adds emphasis and structural variety.
A sentence in which the main independent clause is elaborated by the successive addition of modifying clauses or phrases (main clause is at the beginning)
A sentence constructed so that the predicate comes before the subject
ex. In the woods I am walking.
Four rhetorical modes
concise sentences typically containing five words or less
A mild or indirect word or expression substituted for one considered to be too harsh or blunt when referring to something unpleasant or embarrassing
The false assignment of an event, person, scene, or language to a time when the event, person, scene, or word did not exist
A concise statement that expresses succinctly a general truth or idea, often using rhyme or balance
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