the ability to differentiate sounds vs. the ability to instruct based on sound symbol relationships
Two or three consonants that appear together ina word, with each retaining sound when blended (fl, gr, sp, mp)
Two consonant letters that together stand for a single sound (sh, th, wh)
Two consonant letters may represent the sound of only one of them. The other consonant is "silent" (gn, kn, wr)
Long vowels occur:
at the end of an open syllable
Long vowels with a silent e:
long vowels say their name (a_e, e_e, i_e)
The letter r affects the sound of the vowel(s) that precedes it (er, ir, ur, ar, or)
Also known as vowel pairs. These pairs make one sound. (ai, ee, ie, oa)
Variant vowel digraphs
Sounds that are not commonly classified as long or short vowels (aw, au, oo)
A blend of vowel sounds in one syllable (oi, oy, ow, ou)
The vowel sound sometimes heard in an unstressed syllable
A syllable ending in one or more consonants and having a short-vowel sound spelled with one vowel letter (vc, cvc, ccvc, cvcc)
A syllable ending with a long-vowel sound spelled with one vowel letter (cv, ccv)
Vowel combination syllable
A syllable with a short-vowel, long-vowel, or dipthong sound spelled with a vowel combination (such as ai, ea, ee, oi, or oo. cvvc, ccvvc, cvvcc)
A syllable containing a letter combination made up of a vowel followed by the letter r. The vowel-r combination is one welded sound that cannot be segmented (such as ar, er, ir, or, and ur)
Vowel-Consonant e syllable
A syllable with a long-vowel sound spelled with one vowel letter followed by one consonant and a silent e (VCe, CVCe, CCVCe)
A final separate syllable containing a consonant followed by the letters le
General sequence for Teaching Phonics Elements
1. Single Consonants and show vowels 2. Consonant Digraphs 3. Long Vowels with silent e (CVCe pattern) 4. Long vowels at the end of words or syllables 5. y as a vowel 6. r-controlled vowels 7. silent consonants 8. vowel digraphs 9. variant vowel digraphs or dipthongs
uses actual literacy tasks for the purpose of determining student performance, as opposed to relying solely on the traditional forms of testing
is a reading program which includes phonemic awareness, decoding, fluency, calling on prior knowledge, vocabulary-building, comprehension and motivation
is grouping information to help children remember it better, a form of brainstorming
is listening for a specific purpose (ex. evaluation, information, entertainment)
is reading "text in such a way as to question assumptions, explore perspectives, and critique underlying social and political values or stances."
are teacher-directed stories written by the teacher and the students to reflect a group experience
refers to a precise, factual, informational writing style
is meaning which cannot be cited from the text but which may be drawn from the reading; reading between the lines
Letter sound correspondence
means recognizing the corresponding sound of a specific letter when that letter is seen or heard.
is the awareness and knowledge of one's mental processes such that one can monitor, regulate, and direct them a desired end; self mediation; thoughts about thinking
means visual media other than printed material (movies, photos, symbols)
means partners reading aloud to each other for the purpose of practicing, sharing, developing fluency, communicating information, or modeling oral reading technique
Refers to two students collaborating to create one piece of writing
is the smallest unit of sound
an understanding that speech consists of a series of small sound parts
the association of speech sounds with printed symbols
is a written, typed, or printed version of a piece of prose or poetry
a complex development challenge that we know to intertwined with many other developmental accomplishments: attention, memory, language, and motivation, for example: reading is not only a cognitive psycholinguistic activity but also a social activity
a process in which we construct meaning from print. Any of the subprocesses, such as word identification or comprehension, that are involved in the act of reading.
The process or result of seriously thinking over one's experiences, especially those valued; introspection
is the support and guidance provided by an adult that helps a student function on a higher level; students develop new cognitive abilities when a teacher leads them through task oriented interactions
A unit of organized knowledge. Includes who a person thinks and acts when planning and executing and evaluating performance on a task and its outcomes
is all reading that not individual; this can include paired reading, read-alouds, literacy circles, small groups, and choral reading
refers to non-print texts (cartoons, posters, pictures)
are groups of words having similar roots or stems
consists of addressing words through games, rhymes, tongue twisters; any method that increases student' awareness of the meaning and value of individual words
consists of words posted on classroom walls as a means of immersing students in language, students add new words as they come in contact with them.
combining sounds represented by letters to pronounce a word
The clear, easy, written or spoken expression of ideas
fluent processing of information that requires little effort or attention, as sight-word recognition
ability to sound out the word and knowing the words meaning (number or words read correctly)
syllable ends in one or more consonants
Syllable which ends in a vowel sound rather than a consonant
referring to the sound relationships between the orthography (spelling) and phonology (sounds) of language
Evidence from the general sense or meaning of a written or spoken communication that aids in the identification or an unknown word
Information from the order of words, phrases, clauses or sentences which gives readers useful information on word identification
the written or printed representation of a phoneme
a meaningful linguistic unit that cannot be divided into smaller meaningful elements
Dividing the words into its separate sounds
The consonant preceding the vowel of a syllable
A Vowel and any following consonants of a syllable
A word that is immediately recognized as a whole and does not require word analysis for identification
In phonology, a minimal unit of sequential speech sounds comprised of a vowel sound or vowel-consonant combination
The division of words into syllables
The mid-central vowel in an unaccented or unstressed syllable
Cause and Effect
a stated or implied association between an outcome and the conditions which brought it about, often an organizing principle in narrative or expository text
persons presented in a dramatic or narrative work
the ways in which the author shows how a character changes as the story proceeds
the rising action in a narrative piece
the tension created by the antagonist and the protagonist
the range of secondary or associated significances and feelings which it commonly suggests or implies
usually what the character says
the departure from what speakers mean from the standard meaning of words (ex. similes and metaphors)
narratives or scenes that represent events that already happened
the use of clues to give readers a hint of events that will occur later on
Fiction that not only takes its setting and some characters from history, but makes the historical issues important to the central narrative
Mental pictures created as one reads or one of figurative language
If the protagonist is a myth is a person, it is a called a legend
The tonality (feeling) created by the literary work
an inanimate object is endowed with life or human attributes
the structure or actions in the story
Point of View
the way the story gets told from who (use I for first person, third person is from someone outside the story)
the general locale, historical times, or social circumstances in which the action occurs
the doctrine or general claim of a literary work (the message the author wants to communicate, sometimes expressed as a generalization about life)
The quality or feeling conveyed by the work that pervades a work
"Correction" tells you
A student makes a miscue and then self corrects what they have read.
This is good! We want readers to self-correct. However is the reader reading too fast? Is the reader mis-correcting accurate reading? If so, the reader often doesn't see himself as a good reader
A student inserts a word or letter that was not in the text.
Does the inserted word detract from meaning? If not, it may just mean the reader is making sense but also inserts. The reader may also be reading too fast. If the insertion is something like using "finished" for "finish", this should be addressed.
Miscue Analysis allows you to comment on:
The language cuing systems that a reader uses and the reading strategies that they employ
When words are omitted
It may mean weaker visual tracking. Determine if the meaning of the passage is affected or not. If not, omissions can also be the result of not focusing or reading too fast. It may mean the sight vocabulary is weaker.
Lots of repetition may mean that the test level is too difficult. Sometimes readers repeat when they're uncertain and will repeat the words to make sense of the passage.
Watch for altered meaning. Many reversals happen with young readers with high frequency words ("of" for "for")
Sometimes a child will use a substitution because they don't understand the word being read. Does the substitution makes sense in the passage, it is a logical substitution?
What do miscues tell you?
Using miscue analysis is an important diagnostic tool that should be done every 6-8 weeks to see how the reader is improving in the strategies used. Making sense of the miscues will help you with the next steps to improve the child's reading. It is worthwhile to have a few questions prepared that let you know about the child's comprehension of the passage read as miscue analysis tends to rely on advising you of the strategies used. Miscue analysis may seem time consuming initially, however, the more you do, the easier it gets.
1. Knowledge-recognizing or recalling literal information 2. Comprehension-constructing meaning from the text 3. Application-applying text content to a new situation 4. Analysis-breaking down ideas into their parts to show how they are related 5. Synthesis-combining different ideas to create an original work 6. Evaluation-judging value or effectiveness, based on some criteria or standards
When to apply comprehension strategies in Narrative Reading
Before reading: to orient students to the story and to the task
During reading: to build an understanding of the story
After reading: to check whether students understand the story
Explicit Phonics Lesson Sequence
1. Develop Phonemic Awareness 2. Introduce Sound/Spelling 3. Blend Words 4. Build automatic word recognition 5. Apply decodable text 6. Word work for decoding and encoding
In this systematic and explicit approach, students learn to transform letters and letter combinations into sounds and then the sounds together to form recognizable words.
In this approach students learn how to use a phonogram or rime, in a familiar word to identify an unfamiliar word with the same rime.
In this approach, instruction begins with the identification of a familiar word. The teacher then introduces a particular sound/spelling relationship within that familiar word
In this approach, phonics instruction is embedded in the context of "authentic" reading and writing experiences. Phonic elements are introduced informally when the teacher sense that students need to know them.
Less than 90% accuracy
Types of Phonemic Awareness Activities: Sound matching activities
Teachers create matching games using familiar objects. From a collection of objects and pictures, children choose the two that begin with the same sound. Or children choose one of several items beginning with a particular sound. Children also identify rhyming words. They name a word that rhymes with a given word and identify rhyming words from familiar songs and stories.
Types of Phonemic Awareness Activities: sound isolation activites
Children identify the sounds at the beginning, middle, or end of the word, or teacher can set out a tray of objects and ask children to choose the one object that doesn't belong because it doesn't begin with the sound.
Types of Phonemic Awareness Activities: Sound blending activities
Children play the "What am I thinking of?" guessing game. The teacher identifies several characteristics of an object and then pronounces its name, articulating each of the sounds separately. Then children blend the sounds together and identify the word using both the phonological and semantic information that the teacher provided.
Types of Phonemic Awareness Activities: Sound addition or substitution activities
Students create nonsense words as they add or substitute sounds in words in songs they sing or in books that are read aloud to them.
Types of Phonemic Awareness Activities: Segmentation Activities
Children slowly pronounce a word, identifying all its sounds.