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Info in "Beating Them All"


ability to sound out the word and knowing the words meaning (number or words read correctly)

Analogy Phonics

In this approach students learn how to use a phonogram or rime, in a familiar word to identify an unfamiliar word with the same rime.

Analytic Phonics

In this approach, instruction begins with the identification of a familiar word. The teacher then introduces a particular sound/spelling relationship within that familiar word

Authentic Assessment

uses actual literacy tasks for the purpose of determining student performance, as opposed to relying solely on the traditional forms of testing


fluent processing of information that requires little effort or attention, as sight-word recognition

Balanced Reading

is a reading program which includes phonemic awareness, decoding, fluency, calling on prior knowledge, vocabulary-building, comprehension and motivation


combining sounds represented by letters to pronounce a word

Bloom's Taxonomy

1. Knowledge-recognizing or recalling literal information
2. Comprehension-constructing meaning from the text
3. Application-applying text content to a new situation
4. Analysis-breaking down ideas into their parts to show how they are related
5. Synthesis-combining different ideas to create an original work
6. Evaluation-judging value or effectiveness, based on some criteria or standards

Cause and Effect

a stated or implied association between an outcome and the conditions which brought it about, often an organizing principle in narrative or expository text


persons presented in a dramatic or narrative work

Character development

the ways in which the author shows how a character changes as the story proceeds

A child's ability to indicate how many words are found within a sentences that is dictated to them involves:

word awareness


the rising action in a narrative piece

Closed syllable

A syllable ending in one or more consonants and having a short-vowel sound spelled with one vowel letter (vc, cvc, ccvc, cvcc)

Close Syllable

syllable ends in one or more consonants


is grouping information to help children remember it better, a form of brainstorming

Compared with standardized reading assessments, one important advantage of informal reading assessments is that they allow the teacher to:

Personalize reading assessments to identify the needs of individual students


the tension created by the antagonist and the protagonist


the range of secondary or associated significances and feelings which it commonly suggests or implies

Consonant Blends

Two or three consonants that appear together ina word, with each retaining sound when blended (fl, gr, sp, mp)

Consonant Digraphs

Two consonant letters that together stand for a single sound (sh, th, wh)

Consonant-le syllable

A final separate syllable containing a consonant followed by the letters le

"Correction" tells you

A student makes a miscue and then self corrects what they have read.

This is good! We want readers to self-correct. However is the reader reading too fast? Is the reader mis-correcting accurate reading? If so, the reader often doesn't see himself as a good reader

Critical Listening

is listening for a specific purpose (ex. evaluation, information, entertainment)

Critical Reading

is reading "text in such a way as to question assumptions, explore perspectives, and critique underlying social and political values or stances."


usually what the character says


A blend of vowel sounds in one syllable (oi, oy, ow, ou)

Directionality and tracking of print are two assessments found in testing:

concepts about print

During an instructional activity, the teacher asks a child to locate the onset of the word shop, the child would be correct if they responded:


Embedded Phonics

In this approach, phonics instruction is embedded in the context of "authentic" reading and writing experiences. Phonic elements are introduced informally when the teacher sense that students need to know them.

Experience stories

are teacher-directed stories written by the teacher and the students to reflect a group experience

Explicit Phonics Lesson Sequence

1. Develop Phonemic Awareness
2. Introduce Sound/Spelling
3. Blend Words
4. Build automatic word recognition
5. Apply decodable text
6. Word work for decoding and encoding

Expository Writing

refers to a precise, factual, informational writing style

Figurative Language

the departure from what speakers mean from the standard meaning of words (ex. similes and metaphors)


narratives or scenes that represent events that already happened


The clear, easy, written or spoken expression of ideas


the use of clues to give readers a hint of events that will occur later on

Frustration Level

Less than 90% accuracy

General sequence for Teaching Phonics Elements

1. Single Consonants and show vowels
2. Consonant Digraphs
3. Long Vowels with silent e (CVCe pattern)
4. Long vowels at the end of words or syllables
5. y as a vowel
6. r-controlled vowels
7. silent consonants
8. vowel digraphs
9. variant vowel digraphs or dipthongs


the written or printed representation of a phoneme


referring to the sound relationships between the orthography (spelling) and phonology (sounds) of language

Historical Fiction

Fiction that not only takes its setting and some characters from history, but makes the historical issues important to the central narrative

If a teacher asks the child to locate the rime in the word test, the child would be correct if he/she responded:



Mental pictures created as one reads or one of figurative language

Implied Meaning

is meaning which cannot be cited from the text but which may be drawn from the reading; reading between the lines

In a word containing an r-controlled vowel, such as shark, far, apart, the vowel sound is:

neither long nor short

Independent Level

95-100% accuracy

In general the best strategy for helping beginning readers to identify function words such as: to, the, and of would be to

teach such words as sight vocabulary

The initial consonant or consonant clusters that begin most syllables are called:



A student inserts a word or letter that was not in the text.

Does the inserted word detract from meaning? If not, it may just mean the reader is making sense but also inserts. The reader may also be reading too fast. If the insertion is something like using "finished" for "finish", this should be addressed.

Instructional Level

90-94% Accuracy

In the early stages of developing word identifications such as: the, of, when, because, and and are considered:

sight words

Key components of research based reading/literacy instruction:

Fluency, vocab, phonemic awareness, phonics, reading comprehension


If the protagonist is a myth is a person, it is a called a legend

Letter sound correspondence

means recognizing the corresponding sound of a specific letter when that letter is seen or heard.

Long vowels occur:

at the end of an open syllable

Long vowels with a silent e:

long vowels say their name (a_e, e_e, i_e)


is the awareness and knowledge of one's mental processes such that one can monitor, regulate, and direct them a desired end; self mediation; thoughts about thinking

Miscue Analysis allows you to comment on:

The language cuing systems that a reader uses and the reading strategies that they employ


The tonality (feeling) created by the literary work


a meaningful linguistic unit that cannot be divided into smaller meaningful elements

Non-Print Text

means visual media other than printed material (movies, photos, symbols)


When words are omitted

It may mean weaker visual tracking. Determine if the meaning of the passage is affected or not. If not, omissions can also be the result of not focusing or reading too fast. It may mean the sight vocabulary is weaker.

One way you can find the meaning of the word is by looking at the words around the unknown word. The student is using:

context clues


The consonant preceding the vowel of a syllable

Open Syllable

Syllable which ends in a vowel sound rather than a consonant

Open syllable

A syllable ending with a long-vowel sound spelled with one vowel letter (cv, ccv)

Paired Reading

means partners reading aloud to each other for the purpose of practicing, sharing, developing fluency, communicating information, or modeling oral reading technique

Paired Writing

Refers to two students collaborating to create one piece of writing

The part of a word that makes up the vowel and the final consonants within a syllable is called:



an inanimate object is endowed with life or human attributes


is the smallest unit of sound

Phonemic Awareness

an understanding that speech consists of a series of small sound parts


the association of speech sounds with printed symbols

Phonological awareness vs. Phonics

the ability to differentiate sounds
the ability to instruct based on sound symbol relationships


the structure or actions in the story

Point of View

the way the story gets told from who (use I for first person, third person is from someone outside the story)

Print Text

is a written, typed, or printed version of a piece of prose or poetry

R-controlled syllable

A syllable containing a letter combination made up of a vowel followed by the letter r. The vowel-r combination is one welded sound that cannot be segmented (such as ar, er, ir, or, and ur)

R-controlled Vowels

The letter r affects the sound of the vowel(s) that precedes it (er, ir, ur, ar, or)


a complex development challenge that we know to intertwined with many other developmental accomplishments: attention, memory, language, and motivation, for example: reading is not only a cognitive psycholinguistic activity but also a social activity

Reading fluency refers to a student's ability to:

read smoothly and accurately

Reading process

a process in which we construct meaning from print. Any of the subprocesses, such as word identification or comprehension, that are involved in the act of reading.


The process or result of seriously thinking over one's experiences, especially those valued; introspection


Lots of repetition may mean that the test level is too difficult. Sometimes readers repeat when they're uncertain and will repeat the words to make sense of the passage.


Watch for altered meaning. Many reversals happen with young readers with high frequency words ("of" for "for")


A Vowel and any following consonants of a syllable

Rimes that share the same spelling make up word families. These rimes are called:



is the support and guidance provided by an adult that helps a student function on a higher level; students develop new cognitive abilities when a teacher leads them through task oriented interactions


A unit of organized knowledge. Includes who a person thinks and acts when planning and executing and evaluating performance on a task and its outcomes


The mid-central vowel in an unaccented or unstressed syllable


The vowel sound sometimes heard in an unstressed syllable


Dividing the words into its separate sounds

Semantic Cues

Evidence from the general sense or meaning of a written or spoken communication that aids in the identification or an unknown word


the general locale, historical times, or social circumstances in which the action occurs

Shared Reading

is all reading that not individual; this can include paired reading, read-alouds, literacy circles, small groups, and choral reading

Sight Word

A word that is immediately recognized as a whole and does not require word analysis for identification

Silent Consonants

Two consonant letters may represent the sound of only one of them. The other consonant is "silent" (gn, kn, wr)

The smallest unit of meaning that may be a word, prefix, or suffix is a:


The smallest unit of sound, for example, the sound of the consonant b is a:



Sometimes a child will use a substitution because they don't understand the word being read. Does the substitution makes sense in the passage, it is a logical substitution?


The division of words into syllables


In phonology, a minimal unit of sequential speech sounds comprised of a vowel sound or vowel-consonant combination

Syntactic Cues

Information from the order of words, phrases, clauses or sentences which gives readers useful information on word identification

Synthetic Phonics

In this systematic and explicit approach, students learn to transform letters and letter combinations into sounds and then the sounds together to form recognizable words.

Teaching phonics by taking words and breaking them down into parts is called

synthetic instruction


the doctrine or general claim of a literary work (the message the author wants to communicate, sometimes expressed as a generalization about life)


The quality or feeling conveyed by the work that pervades a work

Two or more consonant letters that combine to make one sound such as those found in the words church and what are called:

Consonant Digraphs

Two or more consonant together that keep their particular sounds such as those found at the beginning of the words climb and straight are called:

Consonant blends

Types of Phonemic Awareness Activities: Segmentation Activities

Children slowly pronounce a word, identifying all its sounds.

Types of Phonemic Awareness Activities: Sound addition or substitution activities

Students create nonsense words as they add or substitute sounds in words in songs they sing or in books that are read aloud to them.

Types of Phonemic Awareness Activities: Sound blending activities

Children play the "What am I thinking of?" guessing game. The teacher identifies several characteristics of an object and then pronounces its name, articulating each of the sounds separately. Then children blend the sounds together and identify the word using both the phonological and semantic information that the teacher provided.

Types of Phonemic Awareness Activities: sound isolation activites

Children identify the sounds at the beginning, middle, or end of the word, or teacher can set out a tray of objects and ask children to choose the one object that doesn't belong because it doesn't begin with the sound.

Types of Phonemic Awareness Activities: Sound matching activities

Teachers create matching games using familiar objects. From a collection of objects and pictures, children choose the two that begin with the same sound. Or children choose one of several items beginning with a particular sound. Children also identify rhyming words. They name a word that rhymes with a given word and identify rhyming words from familiar songs and stories.

A unit of pronunciation having only one vowel phoneme is considered a


The use of repetitive, rhyming texts for kindergarten read-alouds is likely to promote the reading development of kindergarten students primarily by:

fostering their phonemic awareness

Using the knowledge of the relationship between letters and sounds and blending them together when decoding is using:


Variant vowel digraphs

Sounds that are not commonly classified as long or short vowels (aw, au, oo)

Visual Messages

refers to non-print texts (cartoons, posters, pictures)

Vowel combination syllable

A syllable with a short-vowel, long-vowel, or dipthong sound spelled with a vowel combination (such as ai, ea, ee, oi, or oo. cvvc, ccvvc, cvvcc)

Vowel-Consonant e syllable

A syllable with a long-vowel sound spelled with one vowel letter followed by one consonant and a silent e (VCe, CVCe, CCVCe)

Vowel Digraphs

Also known as vowel pairs. These pairs make one sound. (ai, ee, ie, oa)

What do miscues tell you?

Using miscue analysis is an important diagnostic tool that should be done every 6-8 weeks to see how the reader is improving in the strategies used. Making sense of the miscues will help you with the next steps to improve the child's reading. It is worthwhile to have a few questions prepared that let you know about the child's comprehension of the passage read as miscue analysis tends to rely on advising you of the strategies used. Miscue analysis may seem time consuming initially, however, the more you do, the easier it gets.

When a child can break up the letters in words into their particular sounds, he/she is demonstrating the ability to:


When a child is able to hear the sounds that make up a word, such as identifying the initial consonant sound in the word put, that child has:

Phonemic Awareness

When a teacher teaches phonics by taking sounds and blending them together into words, she is teaching phonics through:

synthetic instruction

When to apply comprehension strategies in Narrative Reading

Before reading: to orient students to the story and to the task

During reading: to build an understanding of the story

After reading: to check whether students understand the story

While reading, if a child immediately recognizes a specific word without having to mediate the word with the use of phonics, it would be said that this specific word is:

a sight word

A word attack skill that examines prefixes, roots, and suffixes is called:

morphemic analysis

Word Families

are groups of words having similar roots or stems

Word play

consists of addressing words through games, rhymes, tongue twisters; any method that increases student' awareness of the meaning and value of individual words

Word Walls

consists of words posted on classroom walls as a means of immersing students in language, students add new words as they come in contact with them.

The written representation of sounds are called:


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