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Bonding Orbital

a molecular orbital that can be occupied by two electrons of a covalent bond


a molecule that has two poles, or regions, with opposite charges

Dipole Interactions

intermolecular forces resulting from the attraction of oppositely charged regions of polar molecules

Dispersion Forces

attractions between molecules caused by the electron motion on one molecule affecting the electron motion on the other through electrical forces; these are the weakest interactions between molecules


the mixing of several atomic orbitals to form the same total number of equivalent hybrid orbitals

Hydrogen Bonds

attractive forces in which a hydrogen covalently bonded to a very electronegative atom is also weakly bonded to an unshared electron pair of another electronegative atom

Molecular Orbital

an orbital that applies to the entire molecule

Network Solid

a solid in which all of the atoms are covalently bonded to each other

Nonpolar Covalent Bond

A covalent bond in which the electrons are shared equally by the two atoms

Polar Covalent Bond

a covalent bond between atoms in which the electrons are shared unequally

Tetrahedral Angle

a bond angle of 109.5 degrees that results when a central atom forms four bonds directed toward the center of a regular tetrahedron

VSEPR Theory

valence-shell electron-pair repulsion theory; because electron pairs repel, molecules adjust their shapes so that valence-electron pairs are as far apart as possible

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