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Over the past 50 years, the incidence of anorexia nervosa has steadily increased. This is most clearly attributable to

cultural ideals of beauty that increasingly encourage thinness

The removal of a woman's ovaries may
contribute to decreasing sexual interest because her natural ________ level is _______.

testosterone; lowered

Unlike in men, a high sex drive in women is likely to be associated with an increased same-sex attraction as well as an increased opposite-sex attraction. This best illustrates women's greater

erotic plasticity

Which theory most clearly emphasizes the importance of homeostasis in motivation?

drive-reduction theory

The secretion of PYY _________ hunger and the secretion of orexin ________ hunger.

decreases; increases

During which phase of the sexual response cycle does the refractory period begin?

the resolution phase

A starving rat will lose all interest in food if its ________ is destroyed.

lateral hypothalamus

To lose some of the weight she gained from binge eating, Melissa uses laxatives and exercises until she is exhausted. Melissa most clearly demonstrates symptoms of

bulimia nervosa

In a classic experiment, obese patients whose daily caloric intake was dramatically reduced lost only 6 percent of their weight.This limited weight loss was due, at least in part, to the fact that their dietary restriction led to a(n)

decrease in their metabolic rate

After spending years in the ocean, a mature salmon swims up its home river to return to its birthplace. This behavior is an example of

an instinct

Some students work hard in school to attain high grades. This best illustrates the importance of


The fraternal birth-order effect refers to a factor associated with

sexual orientation

When pregnant sheep were injected with testosterone during a critical period of fetal development, their female offspring later demonstrated

homosexual behavior

When asked what is most necessary for a happy and meaningful life, most people first mention the importance of satisfying their ________ needs


One gene scan of 40,000 people worldwide identified a variant of a gene called FTO. This gene nearly doubles the risk of


Need is to ________ as drive is to ________.

food deprivation; hunger

The concept of a set point is relevant to understanding the experience of


Orexin is an appetite hormone secreted by the


Which theory of motivation most clearly emphasizes the importance of genetic predispositions?

instinct theory

By motivating us to satisfy our physical needs, hunger and thirst serve to

maintain homeostasis

People are more vulnerable to obesity if they experience

sleep deprivation

According to researchers, which of the following would be the BEST advice or encouragement to offer someone who wants to lose excess weight?

"Reduce your weight gradually over a period of several months."

The first stage of the sexual response cycle is

an excitement stage

Which of the following is indicative of a sexual disorder?

premature ejaculation

Lindsey is extremely afraid of becoming obese even though she is underweight. She often checks her body in the mirror for any signs of fat and refuses to eat most foods because she insists they are fatty or high in calories. Lindsey most clearly demonstrates symptoms of

anorexia nervosa

Teenage girls are especially vulnerable to ________ because of their lower levels of protective antibodies.

erotic plasticity

The stress normally experienced by immigrants is lessened by chain migration. This best illustrates the importance of ________ needs.


Destruction of the ________ causes an animal to ________.

ventromedial hypothalamus; overeat

Which of the following is NOT true with respect to sexual orientation?

With the help of a therapist, most people find it easy to change their sexual orientation

Our ________ is said to be a gauge of how socially accepted we feel.



the most important of the male sex hormones.

sexual response cycle

the four stages of sexual responding described by Masters and Johnson- excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution.

sexual orientation

an enduring sexual attraction towards members of either one's own sex (homosexual orentiation) or the other sex (heterosexual orientation).

sexual disorder

a problem that consistently impairs sexual arousal or functioning.

set point

the point at which an individual's "weight thermostat" is supposedly set.

refactory period

a resting period after orgasm, during which a man cannot achieve another orgasm.


a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior.


a complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned.


a positive or negative enviornment stimulus that motivates behavior.


a tendency to maintain balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular level.

hierarchy of needs

Maslow's pyramid of human needs, beginning at the base with physiological needs and then psychological needs.


the form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for blood tissues. When its level is low, we feel hungry.


sex hormones, such as estradiol secreted in greater amounds by females than buy males and contributing to female sex characteristics.

drive- reduction theory

the idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need.

bulimia nervosa

an eating disorder characterized bu episodes of overeating, usually of high-calories foods, followed by vomiting, laxative use, fasting, or excessive exercise.

binge-eating disorder

significant binge-eating episodes, followed by distress, disgust, or guilt, by without the compensatory purging, fasting or excessive exercise that marks bulimia nervosa.

basal metabolic rate

the body's resting rate of energy expenditure.

anorexia nervosa

an eating disorder in which a person diets and becomes significantly (15 percent or more) underweight, yet, still feeling fat, continues to starve.

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