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Evidence that emotion precedes physiological arousal would be most inconsistent with the ________. Evidence that emotion precedes mentally labeling our physiological arousal would be most consistent with the ________.

James-Lange theory; two-factor theory

When Mr. Morgan misinterpreted his harmless symptoms of autonomic nervous system arousal as indicative of an impending heart attack, he suffered an unusually intense level of fear. His emotional suffering is best understood in terms of the

two-factor theory

Activation of the sympathetic nervous system

decreases salivation and increase blood pressure

A lie detector test using a polygraph monitors a person's


If people who have just been aroused by watching rock videos are then insulted, their feelings of anger will be greater than those of people who have been similarly provoked but were not previously aroused. This is best explained by the

two-factor theory

The instantaneous and automatic fear response we experience when unexpectedly stumbling upon a snake illustrates the importance of the


We find it especially difficult to detect from other people's facial expressions whether they are


If you mimic another person's facial expressions of emotion, you probably will feel increasing empathy for that person. This is best explained in terms of

the James-Lang theory

Luciano believes that the best way to get over the anger he feels toward his high school teacher is to scream shameful profanities while hitting a punching bag. His belief best illustrates

the catharsis hypothesis

After receiving exciting news about the birth of a healthy grandson, Mr. Haney was easily persuaded to contribute a generous sum of money to a neighborhood church. This best illustrates the

feel-good, do-good phenomenon

Professor Crane was ecstatic when he learned that his research study had been approved for publication. His feelings of joy quickly dissipated, however, when he heard a colleague recently had three different research articles accepted for publication. His declining emotional satisfaction is best explained in terms of

relative deprivation

The fight-or-flight response is associated with the release of ________ into the bloodstream.


Type A personality is to Type B personality as ________ is to _______.

irritable; calm

After breaking up with her boyfriend, Kathy alleviated her stress by avoiding contact with her ex-boyfriend and by planning recreational activities with her best girlfriend. Kathy's behavior best illustrates

emotion-focused coping

Religiously active AIDS patients ________ than do their nonreligious counterparts.

survive longer

Which theory suggests that you would not experience intense anger unless you were first aware of your racing heart or other symptoms of physiological arousal?

the James-Lange theory

Antonio's car stalls in the middle of a railroad crossing just as a train is rapidly approaching. His emotional arousal is likely to be accompanied by

dilation of his pupils

Exuberant infants and alert, energetic adults are especially likely to show high levels of brain activity in the

left frontal lobe

An approach to lie detection that assesses a suspect's physiological response to details of a crime known only to police investigators is called the

guilty knowledge test

The arousal that lingers after an intense argument may intensify sexual passion. This best illustrates

the spillover effect

Feigned smiles are initiated ________ abruptly and last for a ________ time than genuine smiles.

more; longer

The most universally understood way of expressing emotion is through

facial expressions

If people wrinkle their noses in disgust when presented with a strange-looking food, they are likely to experience an increasingly intense emotional aversion to the food. This best illustrates the

facial feedback effect

A celebrity actress experiences ever-increasing levels of professional acclaim following each successful movie role. Yet with each success, she experiences no more than a temporary surge of subjective well-being. This is best explained in terms of the

adaptation-level phenomenon

One person, alone in a house, dismisses its creaking sounds and experiences no stress; someone else suspects an intruder and becomes alarmed. These different reactions illustrate the importance of

stress appraisal

The second phase of the general adaptation syndrome is characterized by


Who is the best example of a Type A personality?

Andre, a competitive, easily angered journalist

B lymphocytes are formed in the

bone marrow

People tend to use emotion-focused rather than problem-focused coping strategies when they

believe they cannot change a stressful situation

Aerobic exercise ________ the body's production of serotonin and ________ its production of the endorphins.

increases; increases

Type B

Friedman and Rosenman's term for easy-going, relaxed people.

Type A

Friedman and Rosenman's terms for competitive, hard-driving, impatient, verbally aggressive, and anger-prone people.

two factor theory

the Schacter-Singer theory that to experience emotion one must (1) be physically aroused and (2) cognitively label the arousal.

subjective well-being

self-perceived happiness or satisfaction with life.


the process by which we perceive and respond to cetain events, called stressors, that we appraise as threatening or challenging.

relative deprivation

the perception that one is worse off relative to those with whom one compares oneself.

psychophysiological illness

literally, "mind-body" illness; any stress-related physical illness, such as hypertension and some headaches.

problem-focused coping

attempting to alleviate stress directly- bu changing the stressor or the way we interact with that stressor.


a machine, commonly used in attempts to detect lies, that measures several of the physiologyical reponses accompanying emotion (such as perspiration and cardiovascular and breathing changes).


the two types of white blood cells that are part of the body's immune system.

James-Lange Theory

the theory that our experience of emotion is our awareness of our physiological repsonses to emotion-arousing stimuli.

general adaptation syndrome (GAS)

Selye's concept of the body's adaptive response to stress in three states- alarm, resistance, exhaustion.

feel-good, do good phenonomon

people's tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood.

emotion-focused coping

attempting to alleviate stress by avoiding or ignoring a stressor and attending to emotional needs related to one's stress reaction.


a response of the whole organism, involving (1) physiological arousal, (2) expressive behaviors, and (3) consciously experienced thoughts and feelings.

coronary heart disease

the clogging of the vessels that nourish the heart muscle; the leading cause of death in many developed countries.


alleviatng stress using emotional, cognitive, or behavioral methods.

complementary and alternative medicine (CAM)

as yet unproven health care treatments intended to supplement or serve as alternatives to conventional medicine, and which typically are not widely taught in medical schools, used in hospitals, or reimbursed by insurance companies. When research shows a therapy to be safe and effective, it usually then becomes part of accepted medical practice.


emotional release.

Cannon-Bard Theory

the theory that an emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers (1) physiological responses and (2) the subjective experience of emotion.

aerobic exercise

substained exercise that increases heart and lung fitness; may also alleviated depression and anxiety

adapation-level phenonmenon

our tendency to form judgements ( of sound, of light, of income) relative to a netural level defined bu our prior experience.

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