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zygomatic process

lower jaw


much of the lateral and superior cranium


site of mastoid process


its condyles articulate with the atlas


foramen magnum contained here


type of vertebrae containing foramina in the transverse processes, through which the vertebral arteries ascend to reach the brain

cervical vertebra - typical

its dens provides a pivot for rotation of the first cervical vertebra


transverse processes have facets for articulation with ribs; spinous process points sharply downward

thoracic vertebra

composite bone; articulates with the hip bone laterally


massive vertebrae; weight sustaining

lumbar vertebra

tailbone, vestigal fused vertrebra


supports the head, allows the rocking motion of the occipital condyles


seven components, unfused

cervical vertebra - typical

twelve components, unfused

thoracic vertebra

in describing abnormal curvatures, it could be said that _____ is an exaggerated thoracic curvature, and in ______ the vertebral column is displaced laterally.

kyphosis, scoliosis

invertebral discs are made of ____ tissue. the discs provide ____ to the spinal column.

fibrocartilage, springness

the organs protected by the thoracic cage include the ___ and the ____

heart and lungs

ribs 1 through 7 are called ___ ribs, whereas ribs 8 through 12 are called ____ ribs

true and false

ribs 11 and 12 are also called ___ ribs


All ribs articulate posteriorly with the ____

thoracic vertabra

Most ribs connect anteriorly to the ____ either directly or indirectly


the general shape of the thoracic cage is

cone shaped

raised area on lateral surface of humerus to which deltoid muscle attaches

deltoid tuberosity

socket in the scapula for the arm bone

gelnoid cavity

commonly called the collar bone


medial bone of the forearm in the anatomical position


forearm bone involved in formation of elbow joint


receives the weight of the body when sitting


upper margin of the illiac bones

illiac crest

deep socket in the hip bone that receives the head of the thigh bone


point where axial skeleton attaches to the pelvic girdle

sacroilliac joint

lateral bone of the leg


medial bone of the leg


point where the patellar ligament attaches

tibial tuberosity



distal process on medial tibial surface

medial malleolus

process forming the outer ankle

lateral malleolus

the ____ girdle is formed by articulation of the hip bones and the sacrum


nonsurgical realignment of broken bone ends and splinting of bone


a fracture in which the bone is crushed; common in the vertebral column

compression fracture

surgical realignment of broke bone ends

open reduction

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