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APEH Chapter 15
MADE BY GEORGE SAIEED AND CHARLIE BALAAN
Terms in this set (101)
60 to 85 million
How much did the population increase in Europe from 1500 - 1600 (approx.)?
Little ice age
In the mid - sixteenth century, what caused both temperatures to fall and famines?
Many people (mostly women) were accused of this and burned at the stake in medieval and early modern Europe
What was witchcraft?
They were seen as inferior, and older women had no one to protect them
Why were women in the chief victims of witchcraft trials?
The Thirty Years War
(1618-1648), Anti-Imperialists (non-Catholics) vs. Imperialists (Catholics), started as a religious struggle, Catholic forces led by Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand I (won for the first half), then Protestant King of Sweden Gustavus Adolphus (Gustavus II) won several battles against him; Catholics throughout the war were led by the Hapsburg Rulers of Austria; Bourbon (CATHOLIC) rulers of France wanted to extend power and gain land at Hapsburg expense, supported the Protestant cause; Swedes and French defeated Imperialist army, ended in 1648 with the Treaty of Westphalia
The Bohemian phase, the Danish phase, the Swedish phase, and the Franco - Swedish phase
What were the four phases of the thirty years war?
Who assumed the leadership of the Protestant Union (prior to 1609)?
Who assumed the leadership of the Catholic League (1609)
Habsburg Archduke Ferdinand
Who did the Bohemian Estates accept as their king (1617)
They threw two of the Habsburg governors and a secretary out of the royal castle of Prague (defenestration of Prague)
How did the Protestant nobles rebel against Ferdinand?
Who had the advantage at the end of the Bohemian phase (1618 - 1625)?
King Christian IV of Denmark
Who entered the war in 1625 (on behalf of the Protestants)?
Commander of Catholic forces who defeated Protestant forces under Christian IV (at Dessau)
Who was Albrecht von Wallenstein?
It was issued by Ferdinand II, and it prohibited Calvinist worship, and restored property taken by Protestant Princes and cities to the Catholic church.
What was the edict of restitution, and who issued it?
Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, on behalf of the Protestants
Whose entry marked the start of the Swedish phase of the thirty years' war?
At the Battle of Lützen (1632)
When was Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden killed ?
When was the edict of restitution annulled?
King Louis XIII and Cardinal Richelieu of France
What two people entered the war in 1635, marking the beginning of the last phase of the thirty years' war?
The Peace of Westphalia in 1648
What ended the thirty years' war, and when did it do so?
Take power away from the Hapsburgs
Why did France enter the thirty years' war?
KNOW MILITARY REVOLUTIONS AND REBELLIONS!
A form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.)
What is absolutism?
Divine - Right
What supported the theory of absolutism?
A French theologian and court preacher, who wrote "Politics Drawn from the Very words of Holy Scripture", supporting Divine Right Monarchy
Who was Bishop Jacques Bossuet?
Minister of Louis XIII who became ruler of France by making decisions for Louis XIII
Who was Cardinal Richelieu?
Were imposed by Louis XII & XIV, they were law officials who collected taxes and administered justice, and were cause of much discontent, "government agents"; took power from nobles and consolidated power of the King
Who were the intendants?
Anne of Austria, Louis XIII's wife
Who acted as temporary monarch between the death of Louis XIII and the reign of Louis XIV?
Who succeeded Richelieu?
Mazarin was a foreigner; he increased central power; he levied higher taxes
Why did the nobles of France revolt?
The Age of Louis XIV
What was the period from 1661 - 1715 called?
He was able to restructure the central policy - making machinery of gov. because it was part of his own court and household
What was the main key to Louis XIV's power?
Revoked the Edict of Nantes, provided for the destruction of Huguenot churches and closing of Protestant schools, mass exodus of Huguenots weakened the French economy and strengthened its rivals - major mistake of Louis XIV
What was the Edict of Fontainebleau?
An economic advisor to Louis XIV; he supported mercantilism and tried to make France economically self-sufficient. Brought prosperity to France.
Who was Jean-Baptiste Colbert
Document that ended the war of the league of augsburg, forcing louis XIV to give up some land
What was Treaty of Ryswick?
A conflict, lasting from 1701 to 1714, in which a number of European states fought to prevent the Bourbon family from controlling Spain as well as France.
What was the War of Spanish Succession?
What house controlled Brandburg - Prussia?
Frederick William the Great Elector
Who laid the foundation for the Prussian State?
He built a competent and efficient army, which took about 50% of the revenue.
How did Frederick William lay the foundation for the Prussian State?
In return for free hand in running the gov., the nobles had almost unlimited power over their peasants, exempted them from taxation, and awarded them the highest ranks in the army
What was the deal that Frederick William made with the nobles?
He aided the Holy Roman Emperor in the War of Spanish Succession
Why was Frederick III given the title of King?
He was the head of Habsburg elected in 1657 and in return had to keep two promises: give no help to his cousins, the rulers of Spain, and the empire would be a state of princes, in which each ruler would be free from imperial interference
Who was Leopold I?
The Ottoman Turks
Who laid siege to Vienna in 1683?
(1699) Ended the Siege of Vienna and gave Austria the lands of Hungry
What was the Treaty of Karlowitz?
The War of Spanish Succession
What allowed Austria to take control of Northern Italy?
First tsar of Russia, who expanded Russia eastward after finding westward expansion blocked by the powerful Swedish and Polish states
Who was Ivan IV the terrible?
a Russian noble
What was a Boyar?
Followed death of Ivan IV without heir early in 17th century; boyars attempted to use vacuum of power to reestablish their authority; ended with selection of Michael Romanov as tsar in 1613.
What was the Time of Troubles?
Tsar, Aristocrats, Merchants, Townspeople, Peasants
Stratification of Muscovite society
Czar of Russia who introduced ideas from western Europe to reform the government; conscripted peasants forming an army of 210,000 men.
Who was Peter the Great?
Lay official of the Russian church; represented the interests of the tsar and extended control of the tsar over the church.
What was a procurator?
Women, as he shattered their exclusion, and removed them from having to wear veils on their heads.
What group of Russians benefited most from Peter the Great's cultural reforms?
Peter the Great of Russia, and Charles XII of Sweden
Who were the belligerents in the Great Northern War?
He needed to build St. Petersburg on the Baltic Sea.
Why did Peter the Great start the Great Northern War?
The Peace of Nystdadt in 1721
What ended the Great Northern War, and when?
He imported the European State System, which only affected the Upper Class, and led the commoners to distrust the west
What did Peter the Great do that was detrimental to Ruski?
Who was the King of Denmark during the thirty years war?
What type of constitution was proclaimed in Denmark in 1660?
KNOW SWEDEN STUFF!
What were the Christians called by the Ottoman Turks?
Christian boys taken from families, converted to Islam, and then rigorously trained to serve the sultan
Who were the Janissaries?
In 1683, what city did the Ottomans lay siege to?
They chose outsiders, in order to create alliances between countries.
How did Poland choose Kings after the Jagiello Dynasty?
Two chamber assembly dominated by landowners
What is the Sejm (Polish Diet)?
The Monarchs + Sharing of power between Sejm
What weakened the Polish State?
The United Provinces
What was 16th century Netherlands called (Peace of Westphalia)?
Dutch prince invited to be king of England after The Glorious Revolution. Joined League of Augsburg as a foe of Louis XIV.
Who was William of Orange?
They became loaded, due to their refined goods and trade with China
Why did Amsterdam's Population increase?
What house came to power after the death of Queen Elizabeth?
He believed in Divine - Right
How did James I of England alienate Parliament?
A term used to describe the relationship between the English Monarch and the Parliament who were expected to have an almost equal relationship in their efforts to rule England
What was Balanced Polity?
Hierarchical setup of a church. The Church of England has an Episcopal setup, with a rigid organization of Bishops. The number of Englishmen who want a less rigid system is growing during the 1600s
What was the episcopal system?
Presbyterian, Methodist, Lutheran, choose representatives
What was the Presbyterian Model?
Document prepared by Parliament and signed by King Charles I of England in 1628; challenged the idea of the divine right of kings and declared that even the monarch was subject to the laws of the land
What was the Petition of Right?
His marriage to Henrietta Ann Maria
What caused King Charles I to be suspected of being a Catholic?
He was forced to call Parliament due to his inability to raise troops to defend against the Scots.
What caused the downfall of King Charles I?
English general and statesman who led the parliamentary army in the English Civil War (1599-1658)
Who was Oliver Cromwell?
The capture of King Charles I in 1646
What ended the first phase of the English Civil War?
It abolished monarchy in England, and declared England to be a Republic
What did the Rump Parliament do?
They were radical religious revolutionaries who sought social and political reforms, a more egalitarian (equal) society.
Who were the levellers?
The army ruled that arbitrary rule was no longer feasible, so they called in the son of Charles I
Why was Charles II called back to England?
He was an open and devout catholic
Why was James II disliked?
It specified that only Anglicans could hold military and civil office
What was the Test Act of 1673?
Because James had broken the original contract between the king and the people when he tried to "subvert" the constitution
Why were William of Orange and Mary invited to invade England?
King William and Queen Mary accepted this document in 1689. It guaranteed certain rights to English citizens and declared that elections for Parliament would happen frequently. By accepting this document, they supported a limited monarchy, a system in which they shared their power with Parliament and the people
What was the English Bill of Rights?
Artistic movement against the Renaissance ideals of symetry, balance, and simplicity; went against the perfection the High Renaissance created in art. Used elongated proportions, twisted poese and compression of space.
What was mannerism?
Called El Greco, he was a famous painter who used mannerism
Who was Doménikos Theotocópoulos?
elaborate and extensive ornamentation in decorative art and architecture that flourished in Europe in the 17th century
What was the era of Baroque?
A Flemish Baroque painter, and a proponent of an extravagant Baroque style that emphasised movement, colour, and sensuality
Who was Paul Rubens?
Italian architect and sculptor who comleted St. Peter's Basilica in Rome; Action, exuberance, and dramatic effects; his "Throne of St. Peter" highly decorated cover for pope's throne
Who was Gian Lorenzo Bernini?
She was famous for vivid depictions of dramatic sense and her Judith paintings
Who was Artemisia Gentileschi?
French classical painter who painted the Rape of the Sabine Women, known as the greatest French painter of the 17th century
Who was Nicholas Poussin?
(1609-1660) •Dutch Baroque artist who developed a thriving career as a portaitist •Influenced by Hals •Famous self-portrait demonstrates skill & status
Who was Judith Leyster?
Considered one of the greatest Dutch Baroque artists, his financial success was offset by tragic deaths of two wives and all four of his sons
Who was Rembrandt van Rijn?
Standard of playwrights set by him in the 1580s. He wrote an extraordinary number of plays, perhaps 1,500, almost 500 of them survive. They have been characterized as witty,charming, action-packed, and realistic. Wrote plays for money
Who was Lope de Vega?
Wrote tragedies set in Greece or Rome that celebrated the new aristocratic virtues that Louis aimed to inculcate: a reverance for order and self-control, characters regal or noble, lofty language, aristocratic behavior
Who was Jean - Baptiste Racine?
English poet and dramatist considered one of the greatest English writers (1564-1616)
Who was William Shakespeare?
Comic actor and play write. Wrote the Tartuffe, The Miser, The Misanthrope, and The School for Wives. Each was a satire on French society.
Who was Jean - Baptiste Molière?
English materialist and political philosopher who advocated absolute sovereignty as the only kind of government that could resolve problems caused by the selfishness of human beings (1588-1679)
Who was Thomas Hobbes?
English empiricist philosopher who believed that all knowledge is derived from sensory experience (1632-1704)
Who was John Locke?
An Act of Parliament reluctantly agreed to by Charles I (who said it reduced his sovereign powers) which stated that there had to be a parliament of at least 50 days duration every three years.
What was the Triennial Act?
The leader of the Ottoman Turk Empire during the high Renaissance.
Who was Suleiman I?
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