a class structure that is determined by birth. Loosely, it means that in some societies, if your parents are poor, you're going to be poor, too. Same goes for being rich
A male dominated society
A female dominated society
Mandate of Heaven
an ancient Chinese belief and philosophical idea that tiān (heaven) granted emperors the right to rule based on their ability to govern well and fairly.
an ancient network of trade and cultural transmission routes that were central to cultural interaction through regions of the Asian continent connecting the West and East by merchants, pilgrims, monks, soldiers, nomads, and urban dwellers from China and India to the Mediterranean Sea
how individuals and groups are arranged in a relatively linear ladder
the rebirth of a soul in a new body.
The process by which a person or persons acquire the social and psychological characteristics of a group
The belief in only one god
the path to nirvana, comprising eight aspects in which an aspirant must become practiced: right views, intention, speech, action, livelihood, effort, mindfulness, and concentration.
one of the world's oldest monotheistic religions. It was founded by the Prophet Zoroaster in ancient Iran approximately 3500 years ago.
the rational investigation of questions about existence and knowledge and ethics
The belief in many gods
strict adherence, or the principle of strict adherence, to law or prescription
a system of philosophical and ethical teachings founded by Confucius
is a nontheistic religion or philosophy (Sanskrit: dharma; Pali: धम्म dhamma) that encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs and spiritual practices largely based on teachings attributed to Gautama Buddha, commonly known as the Buddha ("the awakened one").
the religion of the Muslims, a monotheistic faith regarded as revealed through Muhammad as the Prophet of Allah.
an ancient monotheistic religion, with the Torah as its foundational text (part of the larger text known as the Tanakh or Hebrew Bible), and supplemental oral tradition represented by later texts such as the Midrash and the Talmud.
the religion based on the person and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth, or its beliefs and practices.
a philosophical, ethical or religious tradition of Chinese origin, or faith of Chinese exemplification, that emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao.
an empire in ancient China, that lasted from 206 b.c.e- 24 c.e.
an empire located in modern day Iran but stretched as far as Egypt and Iraq.
an empire located in northern India that lasted from 320-550 c.e.
an empire that lasted for 3000 years
located in modern day Italy but expanded to outlying countries throughout its reign, it lasted from 201 b.c.e- 476 c.e.
located in modern day central america, it lasted from 1800 b.c.e- 250 c.e.
A body of people living in a defined territory who have a government with the power to make and enforce law without the consent of any higher authority
an extensive group of states or countries under a single supreme authority.
Torah, Old Testament, Jewish Holy Scriptures
Empire in Mesopotamia which was formed by Hammurabi, the sixth ruler of the invading Amorites.
Existed from 27 BCE to about 400 CE. Conquiered entire Mediterranean coast and most of Europe. Ruled by an emperor. Eventually oversaw the rise and spread of Christianity.
An ancient Indic language of India, in which the Hindu scriptures and classical Indian epic poems are written and from which many northern Indian languages are derived.
Core beliefs in sanskrit scriptures; Hinduism; influence of Indo-European traditions in the development of the social and political roles of a caste system; importance of multiple manifestations of Brahma to promote teachings about reincarnation.
A religion and philosophy developed in ancient India, characterized by a belief in reincarnation and a supreme being who takes many forms
(321-185 BCE) This was the first centralized empire of India whose founder was Chandragupta Maurya.
Leader of the Mauryan dynasty of India who conquered most of India but eventually gave up violence and converted to Buddhism.
Siddhartha Gautama (The Buddha)
Means "Enlightened One." He is said to have renounced his worldly possessions and taught of a way to overcome suffering.
Founded Constantinople; best known for being the first Christian Roman Emperor; issued the Edit of Milan in 313, granting religious toleration throughout the empire.
Alexander the Great
Hoplite Armor of the militaristic Spartans
(320-550 CE) The decentralized empire that emerged after the Mauryan Empire, and whose founder is Chandra Gupta.
Indian Ocean Maritime Trade System
In Confucian thought, one of the virtues to be cultivated, a love and respect for one's parents and ancestors.
A way of life in which men and women withdraw from the rest of the world in order to devote themselves to their faith
The practice of identifying special individuals (shamans) who will interact with spirits for the benefit of the community. Characteristic of the Korean kingdoms of the early medieval period and of early societies of Central Asia.
Veneration of the dead or ancestor reverence is based on the beliefs that the dead have a continued existence, and may possess the ability to influence the fortune of the living, the worship of deceased ancestors
Combines two religious traditions into something distinctly new, while containing traits of both
Greatest empire in the world up to 500 BCE. Spoke an Indo-European language. A multi-ethnic and multi-religious empire. Fell to Alexander the Great.
the Chinese dynasty (from 246 BC to 206 BC) that established the first centralized imperial government and built much of the Great Wall
(202 BC - 220 AD) dynasty started by Lui Bang; a great and long-lasting rule, it discarded the harsh policies of the Qin dynasty and adopted Confucian principles; rulers chose officials who passed the civil service exams rather than birth; it was a time of prosperity
Of or influenced by the Greek Empire. A type of culture typically referred to after the conquests of Alexander the Great.
A large central city in the Mesoamerican region. Located about 25 miles Northeast of present day Mexico City. Exhibited city planning and unprecedented size for its time. Reached its peak around the year 450.
civilization of north coast of Peru (200-700 C.E.). An important Andean civilization that built extensive irrigation networks as well as impressive urban centers dominated by brick temples.
A complex of palaces, reception halls, and treasury buildings erected by the Persian kings Darius I and Xerxes in the Persian homeland. It is believed that the New Year's festival was celebrated here, as well as the coronations, weddings, and funerals of the Persian kings, who were buried in cliff-tombs nearby.
A democratic Greek polis who accomplished many cultural achievements, and who were constantly at war with Sparta.
City on the Mediterranean coast of Egypt founded by Alexander. It became the capital of the Hellenistic kingdom of Ptolemy. It contained the famous Library and the Museum and was a center for leading scientific and literary figures in the classical and postclassical eras.
A large and wealthy city that was the imperial capital of the Byzantine empire and later the Ottoman empire, now known as Istanbul
trade routes stretching from China to the Mediterranean, which allowed for the exchange of goods and ideas from China to the Roman Empire
Trans-Saharan Caravan Route
Islamic trade in West Africa was conducted by caravans of camels. According to Ibn Battuta, the explorer who accompanied one of the caravans, the average size was a thousand camels per caravan, with some being as large as 12,000.
Indian Ocean Sea Lanes
lanes throughout the Indian Ocean connecting East Africa, southern Arabia, the Persian Gulf, India, Southeast Asia, and southern China
Mediterranean Sea Lanes
Trade routes that connected the Mediterranean civilizations together. The need for a sea rout for trade in the region. Trade increased and diffusion of cultures occurred
Jesus of Nazareth
a teacher and prophet born in Bethlehem and active in Nazareth; his life and sermons form the basis for Christianity.
Paul of Tarsus
A Pharisaic Jew who persecuted the Early Christian community; later, he had an experience of the Risen Christ and became the "Apostle to the Gentiles" writing numerous letters to the Christian communities.
Ideas that emphasized human logic, empirical observation, and nature of political power and hierarchy.
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Nature & People Vocabulary | Introductory Simplified Mandarin Chinese