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new immigrants both legal & illegal
In a 2010 report on The Changing Environment for Policing 1985-2008, David Bayley and Christine Nixon list the issues of ___ and "Racial Discrimination" as among the six challenges facing American Policing
Zoot Suit Riot
the so-called ___ in LA in 1943 involved attacks on Hispanic men by police and Navy personnel on shore leave
research has shown that people's attitudes are affected by how they are treated by the police and not necessarily by the outcome of the interaction
many local police officials argue that enforcing immigration laws will interfere with their __
defense of life
the the 1970's in response to pretests from civil rights groups, police departments began to replace the fleeing felon rule in favor of the ___ rule
racially profiling black drivers
the term "driving while black" was coined to describe the police practice of:
the US supreme court held that due process of law required appointment of counsel for young, inexperienced, illiterate, and indigent defendants in capital cases in:
the us supreme court extended to the states the requirement to appoint for all indigent defendants in:
the right to counsel in all criminal prosecution is established in the ___ amendment to the US constitution
racial minorities are at a disadvantage in court both because of their race and because they are more likely than whites to be poor
those who are detained prior to trial are more likely to be convicted and receive harsher sentences than those who are released pending trial
1/3 to 1/2
in states, ___ of felony cases are dismissed by the prosecutor prior to a determination of guilt or innocence
mexicans are white people of spanish descent
in cases like Hernandez v State, Texas argued there was no discrimination against Mexican-Americans because:
It is clear that lawyers ___ take the race of the juror into consideration during the jury selection process
strike racial minorities from the jury pool
the reality is that both sides use their peremptory challenges to:
jury nullification, which has its roots in English common law, occurs when a juror believes that the evidence presented at trial establishes the defendant's guilt but nonetheless vote to ___
although US supreme court decisions have made it more difficult for states to discriminate overtly on the basis of race, the procedures used to select the jury pool are not racially neutral
the conflict model
perspective suggesting that police use deadly force more often on volatile segments of the population which threaten the status quo:
community violence hypothesis
perspective which holds that use of deadly force by police officers is necessary response to violence typically encountered in the areas they police:
the US Drug Enforcement Agency
agency that offered drug interdiction training to local and state patrol officers:
during the years 1997 to 2000, the ratio of blacks to whites searched by the CIT division of the NC state troopers:
the removal of most racially prejudiced or aggressive officers between 97-98
factor found to influence the ratio of blacks to whites searched during the study period:
escobedo v illinois
case holding that counsel must be permitted when the process of police investigative effort shifts from merely investigatory to that of accusatory
be formally charged, found delinquent, and committed to youth corrections facilities, and abuse drugs & alcohol
juveniles who are detained are more likely to:
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