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new immigrants both legal & illegal

In a 2010 report on The Changing Environment for Policing 1985-2008, David Bayley and Christine Nixon list the issues of ___ and "Racial Discrimination" as among the six challenges facing American Policing

Zoot Suit Riot

the so-called ___ in LA in 1943 involved attacks on Hispanic men by police and Navy personnel on shore leave


economic class makes no difference in how people of color view the police


research has shown that people's attitudes are affected by how they are treated by the police and not necessarily by the outcome of the interaction

basic responsibilities

many local police officials argue that enforcing immigration laws will interfere with their __


The fleeing felon rule was held unconstitutional by the US Supreme Court in:

defense of life

the the 1970's in response to pretests from civil rights groups, police departments began to replace the fleeing felon rule in favor of the ___ rule


the FBI does not report arrest data on:

racially profiling black drivers

the term "driving while black" was coined to describe the police practice of:


the US supreme court held that due process of law required appointment of counsel for young, inexperienced, illiterate, and indigent defendants in capital cases in:


the us supreme court extended to the states the requirement to appoint for all indigent defendants in:


the right to counsel in all criminal prosecution is established in the ___ amendment to the US constitution


racial minorities are at a disadvantage in court both because of their race and because they are more likely than whites to be poor

reducing pretrial detention

the emphasis of bail reform efforts in the 1960s was:

preventive detention

the emphasis of bail reform efforts in the 1970s and 80s was:


those who are detained prior to trial are more likely to be convicted and receive harsher sentences than those who are released pending trial

1/3 to 1/2

in states, ___ of felony cases are dismissed by the prosecutor prior to a determination of guilt or innocence


prosecutors exercise limited discretion in deciding whether to file formal charges


the USSC first addressed racial discrimination in jury selection in:

mexicans are white people of spanish descent

in cases like Hernandez v State, Texas argued there was no discrimination against Mexican-Americans because:


It is clear that lawyers ___ take the race of the juror into consideration during the jury selection process

a fair jury composition

in theory, the peremptory challenge is used to achieve:

strike racial minorities from the jury pool

the reality is that both sides use their peremptory challenges to:


jury nullification, which has its roots in English common law, occurs when a juror believes that the evidence presented at trial establishes the defendant's guilt but nonetheless vote to ___


jury pools tend to underrepresent racial and ethnic minorities and those who are:


although US supreme court decisions have made it more difficult for states to discriminate overtly on the basis of race, the procedures used to select the jury pool are not racially neutral

the conflict model

perspective suggesting that police use deadly force more often on volatile segments of the population which threaten the status quo:

community violence hypothesis

perspective which holds that use of deadly force by police officers is necessary response to violence typically encountered in the areas they police:

higher than

black police officers killed black felons at a rate ___ that of white police officers

community violence

the individual/situational analysis provides more support for the ___ hypothesis

the 1990's

the history of racial profiling during traffic stops can be traced back to:

the US Drug Enforcement Agency

agency that offered drug interdiction training to local and state patrol officers:


during the years 1997 to 2000, the ratio of blacks to whites searched by the CIT division of the NC state troopers:

the removal of most racially prejudiced or aggressive officers between 97-98

factor found to influence the ratio of blacks to whites searched during the study period:

escobedo v illinois

case holding that counsel must be permitted when the process of police investigative effort shifts from merely investigatory to that of accusatory


plea bargains are typically used to resolve cases over ___ of the time

reassure their innocence

after pleading guilty most defendants:

be formally charged, found delinquent, and committed to youth corrections facilities, and abuse drugs & alcohol

juveniles who are detained are more likely to:


children held in detention are more likely to be committed to youth corrections facilities


most detained youth were being held for violent crimes

non-violent youth

the goal of JDAI is to remove ___ from detention

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