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Praxis II:0011/5011

STUDY
PLAY
informal assessment
observations & checklist
formal assessment
projects. papers, and portfolios rubrics essays tests
Performance-based assessments
ex: a lab experiment
authentic assessments
projects, anecdotal, portfolios
criterion-referenced tests
students can score 100 because they should understand the concept being tested
norm-reference test
A form of assessment in which the test takers' scores can be compared to the scores of a specified group of people, typically a group of the test takers' peers, such as students in the same grade.
percentile scores
the percentage of the population whose scores fall at or below the student's score.
raw scores
how many questions the student answered correctly -used to find the percentage score
normed scores
test scores that are compared to a specified group to determine how a student scored in comparision to the group
reliability
the ability of the instrument to give consistent results with repeated measurments. ex: a good bathroom scale gives the same # each time
Validity
does the test measure what it claims to measure
deductive reasoning
reasoning in which a conclusion is reached by stating a general principle and then applying that principle to a specific case (The sun rises every morning; therefore, the sun will rise on Tuesday morning.)
inductive reasoning
deriving general principles from particular facts or instances ("Every cat I have ever seen has four legs; cats are four-legged animals").
teaching deductively
the teacher gives the students the rule first and then practices it
teaching inductively
the students see many applications of the rule and then determine the rule themselves
inquiry lessons
start with a thought provoking question
set
a collection of things real or imagined related or unrelated
array
area method of representing a multiplication problem
multiples
numbers that a given number divides evenly into
reciprocals
two numbers whose product is 1
ex 8 X 1/8 = 1
associative property for addition and multiplication
3+ (7+5) is the same as (3+7)+5 grouping does not make a difference
distributive property of addition and multiplication
6 X 47 is the same as (6X40) + (6X7)
natural numbers
The set of numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, ... Also called counting numbers.
factors
all whole numbers that divide evenly into a given number.
prime numbers
Numbers with exactly two factors, 1 and itself. Examples would be 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, and 17
composite numbers
Numbers with more than two factors. Examples would be 4, 6, 8, 9, 10, etc.
rational numbers
any number that can be expressed as a fraction
integers
whole numbers and their opposites
fractions
part of a whole
irrational numbers
numbers that cannot be expressed in the form a/b, where a and b are integers and b =0, when written as a decimal it does not repeat or terminate
rational numbers
numbers that can be written as fractions, including terminating and repeating decimals, and integers
real numbers
all the numbers that can be represented by points on the number line
percent
out of 100
ratio notation
an alternative method for showing fractions 2/5 can be expressed as the ratio of 2 to 5 or 2:5
proportion
an equation stating that two ratios are equal ex 2/5 = N/10
congruent
if the measures of two angles are the same the angles are congruent
area
the number of square units needed to cover a flat surface
polygon
a closed plane figure bounded by straight sides
regular polygon
a closed plane figure with all sides and all angles equal
congruent polygons
the same size and shape
similar polygons
the same shape but different sizes; corresponding angles, have the same measure and the lengths of corresponding sides are porportional
tessellation
a repeating pattern of plane figures that completely cover a plane with no gaps or overlaps
scaling
a linear transformation that enlarges or reduces an object
measures of centeral tendency
mean- the average of the numbers
median- the middle number when the vaules are in order
mode-the value occurring most often
range- the largest number- the smallest number
probability
a measure of how likely it is that some event will occur
P= number of ways the event can occur/ total number of possible events
problem solving strategies
estimation (2 level of blooms taxonomy- understanding)
guess and check
draw a picture
make a table or a chart
act it out
look ofr patterns
simplify the numbers
work backwards
volume
the amount of space an object occupies; 3-D
expository
method of instruction based on teacher-dominated activities, examples could include lecture, reading a story, showing video, etc.
discovery
takes place in problem solving situations where the learner draws on his own experience and prior knowledge and is a method of instruction through which students interact with their environment by exploring and manipulating objects, wrestling with questions and controversies, or performing experiments
guided inquiry
is carefully planned, closely supervised,
targeted investigation method of instruction
aptitiude test
predicts a student's ability
achievment test
determines a student's mastery of specific topics/concepts
enrichment
tiered lessons, learning centers, or other options which allow capable students to participate in extended learning opportunities
task analysis
when as assignment or skill is broken down into smaller sequential steps and each of those steps are taught one at a time
chunking
the strategy of breaking down information into bite-sized pieces so the brain can more easily digest new information
scope and sequence
design element of curriculum which includes decisions and planning about the information to be taught as well as an outline of the which sequence skills an concepts are taught
anticipatory set
opening activity of a lesson plan; prepares students for the upcoming lesson
direct instruction
general term for the explicit teaching of a skill-set using lectures or demonstrations of the material, rather than exploratory models such as inquiry-based learning
mastery learning
an instructional philosophy based on the idea of giving students more than one chance to demonstrate profeciency of content and skills.
extrinsic motivator
those that come from outside the individual; often tangible items e.g. money, prizes, stickers
intrinsic motivatior
those that come from within the individual; satisfaction, pride, feeling of accomplishment
equity
expectations and support for ALL students
constructivism
individuals create their own knowledge based on previous knowledge and controlled investigation
procedural knowledge
understanding of rules, routines, and tasks of mathematics
scaffolding
specialized instructional supports put in place in order to best facilitate learning when students are first introduced to a new subject.
ways students can respond to mathematical questions
concrete, picture, symbols, and/or oral
anecdotal notes
informal observational data recorded by a teacher as an assessment of how a student is performing on a learning concept, socially, etc.