### criterion-referenced tests

students can score 100 because they should understand the concept being tested

### norm-reference test

A form of assessment in which the test takers' scores can be compared to the scores of a specified group of people, typically a group of the test takers' peers, such as students in the same grade.

### percentile scores

the percentage of the population whose scores fall at or below the student's score.

### normed scores

test scores that are compared to a specified group to determine how a student scored in comparision to the group

### reliability

the ability of the instrument to give consistent results with repeated measurments. ex: a good bathroom scale gives the same # each time

### deductive reasoning

reasoning in which a conclusion is reached by stating a general principle and then applying that principle to a specific case (The sun rises every morning; therefore, the sun will rise on Tuesday morning.)

### inductive reasoning

deriving general principles from particular facts or instances ("Every cat I have ever seen has four legs; cats are four-legged animals").

### teaching inductively

the students see many applications of the rule and then determine the rule themselves

### associative property for addition and multiplication

3+ (7+5) is the same as (3+7)+5 grouping does not make a difference

### prime numbers

Numbers with exactly two factors, 1 and itself. Examples would be 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, and 17

### irrational numbers

numbers that cannot be expressed in the form a/b, where a and b are integers and b =0, when written as a decimal it does not repeat or terminate

### rational numbers

numbers that can be written as fractions, including terminating and repeating decimals, and integers

### ratio notation

an alternative method for showing fractions 2/5 can be expressed as the ratio of 2 to 5 or 2:5

### similar polygons

the same shape but different sizes; corresponding angles, have the same measure and the lengths of corresponding sides are porportional

### tessellation

a repeating pattern of plane figures that completely cover a plane with no gaps or overlaps

### measures of centeral tendency

mean- the average of the numbers

median- the middle number when the vaules are in order

mode-the value occurring most often

range- the largest number- the smallest number

### probability

a measure of how likely it is that some event will occur

P= number of ways the event can occur/ total number of possible events

### problem solving strategies

estimation (2 level of blooms taxonomy- understanding)

guess and check

draw a picture

make a table or a chart

act it out

look ofr patterns

simplify the numbers

work backwards

### expository

method of instruction based on teacher-dominated activities, examples could include lecture, reading a story, showing video, etc.

### discovery

takes place in problem solving situations where the learner draws on his own experience and prior knowledge and is a method of instruction through which students interact with their environment by exploring and manipulating objects, wrestling with questions and controversies, or performing experiments

### guided inquiry

is carefully planned, closely supervised,

targeted investigation method of instruction

### enrichment

tiered lessons, learning centers, or other options which allow capable students to participate in extended learning opportunities

### task analysis

when as assignment or skill is broken down into smaller sequential steps and each of those steps are taught one at a time

### chunking

the strategy of breaking down information into bite-sized pieces so the brain can more easily digest new information

### scope and sequence

design element of curriculum which includes decisions and planning about the information to be taught as well as an outline of the which sequence skills an concepts are taught

### direct instruction

general term for the explicit teaching of a skill-set using lectures or demonstrations of the material, rather than exploratory models such as inquiry-based learning

### mastery learning

an instructional philosophy based on the idea of giving students more than one chance to demonstrate profeciency of content and skills.

### extrinsic motivator

those that come from outside the individual; often tangible items e.g. money, prizes, stickers

### intrinsic motivatior

those that come from within the individual; satisfaction, pride, feeling of accomplishment

### constructivism

individuals create their own knowledge based on previous knowledge and controlled investigation

### scaffolding

specialized instructional supports put in place in order to best facilitate learning when students are first introduced to a new subject.