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History Chapter 2, and 3
Terms in this set (70)
6,000 BCE worlds first urban civilization. Agrarian civilization. Located in Mesopotamia between Tigris and Euphrates Rivers.
• created first large cities
• developed monumental buildings
• first with system of writing.
• invented wheel.
• first to build irrigation system powered by gravity
• first to use plow
• among first to make bronze tools, and weapons.
• among first the develop short and long distance trade.
• A family of languages spoken in neighboring tribes, BUT NOT SPOKEN BY SUMERIANS.
• Hebrew, Arabic, and Aramaic and certain ancient languages such as Phoenician and Akkadian, constituting the main subgroup of the Afro-Asiatic family.
Land between and surrounding Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. Stretched from Mediterranean Sea to Persian Gulf. Modern day Turkey and Iraq, Iran, Syria.
Semitic invader who conquered fertile crescent plain in 2,300BCE.
• United the land between rivers.
• established the city of Akkad.
: a member of a community or tribe not belonging to one of the great civilizations (Greek, Roman, Christian).
• a greek word that means people who speak a different language.
• a supposedly inferior group.
• Founded by Sargon the Great.
• United land between rivers. (Tigris and Euphrates)
• lasted 100 years
• great influencers of culture in Mesopotamia.
• Neighbors and rivals to Sumerians
First sophisticated writing system invented by the Sumerians.
The Behistun Inscription is a multilingual inscription and large rock relief on a cliff at Mount Behistun in the Kermanshah Province of Iran, near the city of Kermanshah in western Iran. It was crucial to the decipherment of cuneiform script.
: writing derived from a simplified picture.
: a form of writing which uses representational, pictorial drawings, similarly to cuneiform and, to some extent, hieroglyphic writing, which also uses drawings as phonetic letters or determinative rhymes.
Epic of Gilgamesh (also consider Flood story)
• earliest fiction accounts
• earliest approaches to analyzing the relation of gods and humans
• portrays a society in search of religious basis for human action.
• among first flood story.
• shares many characteristics of Hebrew Noah flood story.
A powerful city after Sumerian times.
Sumerian small competing cities. Cities such as Eridu, Lagash, Uruk, and Ur.
Stepped pyramid temple complexes of Mesopotamia where gods were thought to reside at times.
Hammurabi (and his code)
Post-Sumerian Mesopotamia Emperor.
adopted among earliest law codes.
• dealt with family and social problems
• Code based punishment on social rank of the violator.
• Offenders were subjected to the same damage or injury they caused to others.
• within same social class "an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth."
Country ruled by priests.
Slavery in Mesopotamia
Common in most ancient societies. Skilled laborers. Dealt with unpleasant jobs. NOT morally contemptible and personally humiliating that it would LATER become. Had nothing to do with race or ethnicity, rather with bad luck, such as being on the losing side of a war or falling into debt. Not uncommon to resume freedom after debts were paid off. NO hereditary slavery. Owners often freed slaves upon death.
Society in which men have social and political dominance.
Mesopotamian Invaders (Amorites, Hittites, Assyrians, Chaldees)
Successors to Sumerian civilization.
:a Chaldean king of the Neo-Babylonian Empire, who reigned c. 605 BC - c. 562 BC. Both the construction of the Hanging Gardens of Babylon and the destruction of Jerusalem's temple are ascribed to him. He is featured in the Book of Daniel and is mentioned in several other books of the Bible.
: was the ruler of ancient Assyria at the height of Assyrian military and cultural accomplishments. He is known in Greek writings as Sardanapalus and as Asnappeer or Osnapper in the Bible. Through military conquests Ashurbanipal also expanded Assyrian territory and its number of vassal states. However, of far greater importance to posterity was Ashurbanipal's establishment of a great library in the city of Nineveh. The military and territorial gains made by this ruler barely outlived him but the Library he established has survived partially intact. A collection of 20,000 to 30,000 cuneiform tablets containing approximately 1,200 distinct texts remains for scholars to study today. Ashurbanipal's library was not the first library of its kind but it was one of the largest and one of the ones to survive to the present day. Most of it is now in the possession of the British Museum or the Iraq Department of Antiquities.
Decline of Mesopotamia
First example of long term environmental degradation. Because the crops yielded less the area was gradually abandoned. The climate became harsher with sandstorms, and great heat.
Trends: Geography- Mesopotamia and Eygpt
: played an important role in development of civilizations. Both civilizations benefited from proximnity to rivers for trade. Tigris and euphrates flooded unpredictably, therefore making advance plans for crops unavailable. Mesopotamia vulnerable to invading armies because of location inside valley. By contrast, Nile flooded predictably during rainy season. Farmers could therefore plan for and utilize the excess rain. Egypt's isolation by surrounding deserts, and sinai peninsula left them to establish civilization without fear of invading armies.
god that represented rebirth and renewal of life. god that came from the primordial earth from which all living things emerged.
Occurred because of great deserts to south and west. Also, because of Sinai Peninsula, and Red Sea. Allowed Egypt to flourish without invaders for 2,000 years.
Ruler of Egypt. Ruler in name of Falcon god Horus. Was a god to Egypt citizens.
Invaders into Egypt. Came from Sinai Peninsula, and conquered Nile delta. Occurred during second Intermediate Period 1,650- 1,570BCE. New Kingdom began after these invaders were defeated.
:flourished early 26th century b.c, king of Egypt: builder of the great pyramid at Giza
:fifth king of the 6th dynasty (c. 2325-c. 2150 bce) of ancient Egypt, during whose lengthy reign the government became weakened because of internal and external troubles. Late Egyptian tradition indicates that Pepi II acceded at the age of six and, in accord with king lists of the New Kingdom (1539-1075 bce), credits him with a 94-year reign. Contemporary texts record his 62nd and 65th years.
:Hatshepsut was the fifth pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt. She was the second historically confirmed female pharaoh, the first being Sobekneferu. Hatshepsut came to the throne of Egypt in 1478 BC.
:Boy Pharaoh in New Kingdom Egypt. Reign was very short. Died when approximately 19. Howard Carter discovered tomb in 1920's, which was almost undisturbed when uncovered, and provided the most lavish findings/artifacts of a Pharaoh tomb to date.
: is the legendary first king of Egypt who is thought to have united Upper and Lower Egypt through conquest and founded both the First Dynasty and the great city of Memphis. ... In the early days of Egyptology,
: was a pharaoh of Egypt. He ruled from 1878 BC to 1839 BC during a time of great power and prosperity, and was the fifth monarch of the Twelfth Dynasty of the Middle Kingdom. He built a large pyramid complex at Dashur to the northeast of the Red Pyramid of Sneferu. Senusret's Dashur pyramid included a number of smaller pyramids and tombs for his female relatives. However, it is not clear whether the pharaoh was himself buried here as he also built a burial complex at Abydos.
: was an Egyptian woman reigning as pharaoh after the death of her brother Amenemhat IV. She was the last ruler of the 12th Dynasty and governed Egypt for almost 4 years from 1806 to 1802 BC. Her name means "the beauty of Sobek."
Battle of Kadesh
: took place between the forces of the Egyptian Empire under Ramesses II and the Hittite Empire under Muwatalli II at the city of Kadesh on the Orontes River, just upstream of Lake Homs near the modern Syrian-Lebanese border. Wikipedia
Date: 1274 BC
: was the sixth Pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty. During the first twenty-two years of Thutmose's reign he was co-regent with his stepmother and aunt, Hatshepsut, who was named the pharaoh.
: also known as the Great, was the third pharaoh of the Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt. He is often regarded as the greatest, most celebrated, and most powerful pharaoh of the Egyptian Empire.
Amenhotep IV aka
: Akhenaten (r. 1353-1336 BCE) was a pharaoh of Egypt of the 18th Dynasty. His name translated means `of great use to' the god Aten. Akhenaten chose this name for himself after his conversion to the cult of Aten. The world's first Monotheistic religion. Prior to this conversion, he was known as Amenhotep IV.
Egyptian picture writing. Means "sacred Carvings"
: is a rock stele, found in 1799, inscribed with a decree issued at Memphis, Egypt, in 196 BC on behalf of King Ptolemy V. The decree appears in three scripts: the upper text is Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs, the middle portion is Demotic script, and the lowest is Ancient Greek. Because it presents essentially the same text in all three scripts (with some minor differences among them), the stone provided the key to the modern understanding of Egyptian hieroglyphs.
Formally trained writers in Mesopotamia, and Egypt.
Souls of the dead that were weighed by the god Anubis. The life essence.
god, ruler of the afterlife.
Falcon god of Egypt. Pharaoh was physical form of this god.
: was the ancient Egyptian goddess of marriage, fertility, motherhood, magic and medicine.
: was the goddess of scorpians and magic. She was depicted in the form of a woman with a scorpian on her head.
: the god who created everything. Also known as the Sun God, Ra was a powerful deity and a central god of the Egyptian pantheon. The ancient Egyptians worshiped Ra more than any other god and pharaohs often connected themselves with Ra in their efforts to be seen as the earthly embodiment of the Sun God.
: was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (c. 484-c. 425 BC), a contemporary of Socrates. He is widely referred to as "The Father of History"
: An important man has died and his body needs to be prepared for burial. The process of mummification has two stages. First, the embalming of the body. Then, the wrapping and burial of the body.
: is the name commonly given to the period in the 3rd millennium BC when Egypt attained its first continuous peak of civilization in complexity and achievement - the first of three so-called "Kingdom" periods, which mark the high points of civilization in the lower Nile Valley
:also known as The Period of Reunification) is the period in the history of ancient Egypt between about 2000 BC and 1700 BC, stretching from the establishment of the Eleventh Dynasty to the end of the Twelfth Dynasty, although some writers include the Thirteenth and Fourteenth dynasties in the Second Intermediate Period. During this period, Osiris became the most important deity in popular religion.
The period comprises two phases, the 11th Dynasty, which ruled from Thebes and the 12th Dynasty onwards which was centered on el-Lisht. These two dynasties were originally considered to be the full extent of this unified kingdom.
: sometimes referred to as the Egyptian Empire, is the period in ancient Egyptian history between the 16th century BC and the 11th century BC, covering the Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth Dynasties of Egypt.
Women in Egypt and Mesopotamia
In earliest stage of civilization women more or less shared equally in prestige and power. Later however, this status was undermined and overturned by the development of militaries, the invention of the heavy plow, and trade over great distances.
: was the ancient Egyptian concept of truth, balance, order, harmony, law, morality, and justice. Was also personified as a goddess regulating the stars, seasons, and the actions of both mortals and the deities, who set the order of the universe from chaos at the moment of creation.
British archeologist who discovered King Tut's tomb in the 1920's.
Invasions into Egypt
New Kingdom Era. Other civilizations wanted what Egypt had, they wanted access to the Nile. Intermediate periods were dangerous for Egypt because Their kingdoms devolved into civil war which made them vulnerable to invasion.
Up the Nile to the SOUTH of Egypt. Through one of the harshest deserts in the world lies this kingdom. Contained an African kingdom called of Kush.
Land of Punt
Egypt traded with these people. A land that had luxuries such as, spices, frankincense, myrrh, and gold. Near the area of India, Southern Arabia, and Eastern Africa.
Nubian land that Egypt traded with in the New Kingdom period. Beneath the 3rd cataract of the Nile River. African kingdom that included the city of Thebes.
Capital city of kingdom of Kush. South past 4th cataract of the Nile. Recently discovered, has its own script which has yet to be deciphered. At this time Kush cut ties with Egypt.
Egypt and Kush
Two kingdoms that shared the Nile river. Kush was never brought under Egyptian rule. But two societies share cultural influences, similar ruler archetypes, similar gods, pyramid burial sites.
Original capital of the kingdom of Kush.
● Major Characteristics of Mesopotamian and Egyptian Civilizations Religion, Government, Technology, Social
hierarchy, slavery, geography, challenges, economy
• slavery: in Mesopotamia and Egypt- a sizable portion of working population in all ancient societies. Performed much of the unpleasant or dangerous work in society.
● impact of religion on society
• religion did not control Mesopotamian lives.
• religion reflected what was important to the civilization.
• irrigation gods (for Mesopotamia) because water was unpredictable.
• religion helped to explain natural phenoemons.
• believed in a host of nature gods
• priests made sacrifices to gods to ensure city's welfare and properity.
• Mesopotamian gods were oftern cruel and unpredictable to their human creatures. (This reflects the nature of early peoples environment- where rivers often flooded unpredictably.
● significance of geography
• good farm land was the reason for early civilization.
• good water source was essential to early civilization.
• egypt was surrounded by desert which deterred invaders for 2,000 years.
• Levantine Corridor was endowed with especially high water tables.
• Nile river flooded predictably each year.
• Trade could happen because there were rivers to navigate upon.
Consider the religious practices of the Mesopotamians. What do their beliefs and practices suggest they
most valued? (pick one thing and support it!)
• they valued control over their natural environment.
• protection from their natural environment.
"Times change but human nature hasn't." Prove this statement by discussing the goals of the Code of Hammurabi and the goals of the laws in the United States.
• code dealt with social and family problems
• we have jury by your peers.
•Hammurabi had sentences based on societal rank.
• sentences in modern day reflect severity of crime, just like Hammurabi.
• jail is nearly always the punishment for crime in modern day US, except in certain sttes where the death penalty can be imposed on the grieviest offenders- physical punishment was what Hammurabi advocated "eye for en eye"
• status is still important in sentencing- although the modern day law should be blind to status.
What one thing did civilizations in Mesopotamia, Egypt and Kush have in common?
• They all relied on proximity to water to survive.
• They all had labor specialties.
• They all believed in multiple gods.
• They all had rulers by divine providence. (God Kings)
"Egyptian and Mesopotamian society prove that Jared Diamond was right." Agree or Disagree. Be sure to
use examples from both to prove your argument!
• agricultural revolution allowed for stable food supplies, it allowed for differentiation of labor, it allowed for the invention of writing, and written accounts of history.
• it allowed for creation of great works (pyramids)
• it allowed peoples to claim territory, which gave them identity.
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