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Drugs and Society Ch 4
Terms in this set (37)
derived from coca leaves; grown in high altitude rain forests and fields along slopes of Peruvian and Bolivian Andes
early history of cocain
trace chewing of coca leaves to Incans 13th century until the Spanish conquest in in 1532.
why is there low risk for chewing coca
low dose and slow absorption provides few instances of toxicity or abuse. More serious problem with coca paste
coca paste that contains much higher percent and is mixed with tobacco and smoked
19th century cocaine
coca leaves brought back by Spanish but ignored until 1850s
chemically isolated active ingredient and observed its effects and named it cocaine
promoter of popular coca laced wine
developer of coca-cola originally containing cocaine
removed cocaine and replaced with de-cocainized coca leaves in 1903
Pure food and drug act
1906. required all ingredients be listed
1914. restrictions of sale of cocaine
cofounder of John Hopkins medical school. Early developer of cocaine to anesthetize nerves and whole limbs
1884 Freud struggled with depression and promoted use of cocaine.
By 1887, Freud saw the danger of cocaine
Ernst con Fleischl Marsxow
Freud's friend that suffered dependence and hallucinations and died
individuals feels insects or snakes crawling over or under their skin
acute effects of cocaine
powerful burst of energy and sense of well being but mood drastically changes as it diminishes.
Sudden elevation in sympathetic branch of autonomic nervous system. Increase heart rate and respiration and decrease appetite.
Blood vessels constrict, pupils dilate and increase blood pressure.
excitation of sympathetic also means inhibits parasympathetic or motor skills.
drug most commonly related to hospital visits and death because of adverse cardiovascular effects, cerebral hemorrhage, or heart failure.
intravenous or smoked felt in seconds and lasts 5-10 minutes.
Snorted less intense but lasts 15-30 minutes.
chronic effects of cocaine
irritable, depressed, and paranoid.
cocaine psychosis: hallucinations, paranoia, disordered thinking.
septum can develop lesions with small holes causing problems breathing and bloody nose
medical uses of cocaine
topically blocks transmission to nerve impulses and is anesthetic.
only legitimate accepted use is no anesthetic for nasal, lacrimal or tear duct, and throat surgery.
disadvantages of medical use of cocaine
indirectly absorbed to blood and produces intense blood vessel constriction
cocaine in the brain
enhances activity of dopamine by blocking the reuptake process at the synapse so it stimulates postsynaptic receptors longer and to greater degree. Typically in the nucleus accumbens or the pleasure center of the brain.
phenomenon in brain that produces heightened sensitivity to repeated administrations. opposite of tolerance.
present day cocaine abuse
increased greatly in 1970s reaching its peak around 1986.
Became the champagne of drugs.
attitudes changed in the 80s with crack cocaine in 85
coca to cocaine
coca leaves soaked in chemicals so cocaine is drawn out.
leaves crushed and alcohol percolated through them.
washings and treatments with kerosene the yield is 60% pure and is coca paste but is not water soluble.
Can treat with oxidizing agents and acids to make water soluble white powder, cocaine hydrochloride, to be inhaled or injected and is 99% pure.
cocaine to crack
free-base cocaine: smokable form in 1970s.
crack: smokable form in 1980s
free-base is more dangerous and flammable.
Crack is treated with baking soda so it is cheaper and safer.
crack cause crime and violence to skyrocket
Treatment for cocaine abuse
initial phase: detox and abstinence.
can receive inpatient or outpatient or a combination. Inpatient is more expensive but more effective.
Gamma vinyl-GABA, Vigabatrin, is pharmacological treatment that prevents sudden surge of dopamine.
risk of relapse is high due to powerful conditioned cues
types of amphetamines
d-amphetamine, dexedrine, is more potent right handed.
l-amphetamine, levoamphetamine is left handed and combined with d in adderal.
methamphetamine: modified from d-amphetamine. CH3 substituted for hydrogen. once marked under brand name methedrine
origin in Chinese medical herb ma huang. A german chemist isolated active ingredient naming it ephedrine.
1932 became marketed in synthetic form of amphetamine.
given to troops in WWII to stay awake and alert.
advantages of amphetamines
easily absorbed into nervous system. The effect are longer lasting
abuse of amphetamines
reached peak in 1967 and declined over the 70s
how amphetamines work in the brain
the structural differences are slight between dopamine and norepinephrine with d-amphetamine and meth.
They increase activity level of dopamine and norepinephrine neurotransmitters by increasing release and slow reuptake.
Overall similar to cocaine
acute effects of amphetamines
similar to cocaine but longer lasting at 8-24 hours.
Increase sympathetic autonomic activity.
faster breathing and heart rate, hyperthermia, increase blood pressure.
advers: convulsions, chest pain, stroke
chronic effects of amphetamines
hallucinations and obsessive behavior, paranoia, violence.
Called amphetamine psychosis
Abuse of Meth
at the same time as the abuse of marijuana and LSD around 1967 but speed freaks quickly got a bad name
present day meth
when crack and powder cocaine declined in the 90s, meth reemerged.
Farm fertilizers with liquid anhydrous ammonia and cold medicines with pseudoephedrine became heavily regulated
crystal meth, called ice, became popular club drug
treatment for meth abuse
meth abusers showed higher levels of impairment compared to cocaine abusers on tests of perceptual speed or manipulation of information.
withdraw symptoms very similar to cocaine.
Both in and outpatient and cocaine anonymous because symptoms are so similar.
many abusers have strong belief they are still in control so rarely seek treatment
medical uses of amphetamines
treat ADD and ADHD.
Modafinil or provigil treat narcolepsy.
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