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crude birth rate

the number of live births per 1,000 members of a population in a given year

crude death rate

the number of deaths per 1,000 members of a population in a given year


the science dealing with the size, distribution, and composition of and changes in population


the potential number of children that could be born if every woman of childbearing age bore all the children she possibly could

fertility rate

the annual number of live births per 1,000 women ages 15-44

age specific death rate

the number of deaths per 1,000 individuals in an age specific age group

infant mortality rate

the number of deaths among infants under one year of age per 1,000 live births

net migration rate

the increase or decrease per 1,000 members of the population in a given year that results from people entering

population pyramid

the age and sex composition of a population as portrayed in the tree of ages


population control through famine, need for food, sexual desire - individual to restrain population growth through self-control


more people than can be employed, overpopulation is caused by capitalism - collective action to refashion institutional life

concentric circle model

the approach to city growth stating that the modern city assumes a pattern of concentric circles, each w/ distinctive characteristics

sector model

approach to city growth that assumes that large cities are made up of sectors - wedge-shaped areas - rather than concentric circles

nuclear family

spouses and their offspring constitute the core relationship, blood relatives are marginal

family of orientation

a nuclear family that consists of oneself and one's father, mother, and siblings

family of procreation

a nuclear family that consists of oneself and one's spouse and children

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