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125 terms

World History First Semester

Wootton
STUDY
PLAY
Geography of Ancient Greece
rugged, easy access to sea, can only farm grapes/olives, raise goats/sheep
Status of women in ancient Greece
low (except in Sparta)
Mycenaean Civilization
1600-1200 BC, powerful fortress cities, warlike and aggressive
responces to overpopulation in Archaic Era
infant exposure, prostitution, homosexuality, colonization
hetaira
prostitute, long-term paid companion
metropolis
a Greek colony's "mother city"
lyric poetry
designed to be sung, rhymed/had a meter, about personal relationships
epic poetry
long book-length poem, about mighty deeds/a grand adventure
Sappho
lyric poet, female, from Lesbos
kouros
(sculpture) depiction of nude male athlete, motionless
kore
(sculture) fully clothed women
Solon
eponymous archon, established timocracy, ends debt slavery
tyrants
"illegal ruler," seized power by force, NOT NEGATIVE
phalanx
Greek battle formation, rectangle made of lines of soldiers
Pythagoras
geometry, the essence of the universe could be found in music and numbers
Peisistratus
Seized power from Solon and exiled nobles who disagreed with him. He also distributed those nobles' land to poor farmers in need.
Cleisthenes
introduced democracy
Pericles
perfected democracy
Sophocles
Greek writer of tragedies, author of Oedipus Rex
Euripides
writer, used regular people instead of Gods, and tried to answer real life questions in playwrite
Aristophenes
playwright (comedy)
Herodotus
Greek historian, "father of history"
Thucydides
ancient Greek historian, wrote history of the Peloponnesian War
Thales of Miletus
believed everything was water (lawl), universe is consistent and we can figure out these consistent universal laws
Socrates
taught students to question everything, put to death for atheism/corrupting youth of Athens
Plato
student of Socrates, everything perfect exists on some ideal plane somewhere, we can get to ideal plane by rational thought
Aristotle
student of Plato, doesn't believe in ideal plane, all human knowledge can be systematized
Euclid
father of geometry
Oligarchy
"rule by the few," some wealthy nobles rule
Timocracy
"rule by wealth," Solon, 4 economic classes
Pentakosiomednimoi
highest class in timocracy, "500 bushels of wheat a year," can run for office
democracy
Rule by the people
Homer
ancient Greek epic poet, wrote Iliad and Odyssey
Agora
a central area in Greek cities used both as a marketplace and as a meeting place
Sparta
Powerful Greek city-state that was a long time rival of Athens
The Persian Wars
A series of wars where the Greek city-states united against Persia, and managed to maintain control of the Aegean Sea and push the Persian Empire back
Battle of Marathon
a battle in 490 BC in which the Athenians and their allies defeated the Persians
Parthenon
temple in Athens built to honor the goddess Athena
Greek Classical Era
following Persian wars, an explosion of greek pride
Philip II of Macedon
loves Greek culture, King of Macedon and restored order before he won control of several Athens colonies in northern Greece
Hellenistic
a word meaning to "imitate Greeks," Greek-speaking civilization which spread through many lands of the eastern Mediterranean and beyond following the conquests of Alexander the Great.
Alexander the Great
successor of Philip of Macedon, 1st global empire, but no lasting bureaucracy, spread of Hellenism is greatest achievement
Stoicism
Taught by Zeno, happiness can only be found when people gained inner peace by living in harmony with the will of God
Epicureanism
Happiness was goal of life, can only be happy when centered on friendship
res novae
"new stuff," Rome hated it
Gravitas
great or very dignified seriousness, valued trait
Plebeian
commoners in Rome
Patrician
a member of Roman aristocracy
Conflict of the Orders
plebeians threaten to leave for lack of power, so the patricians give them the written law, they can marry into patrican families, and their own assembly in Concilium Plebis
Consuls
Two officials from the patrician class were appointed each year of the Roman Republic to supervise the government and command the armies
cursus honorum
the path of honor, to move up a level in the political sense
Senate
the supreme governing body, originally made up only of aristocrats.
Comitia Tributa
made up of 34 tribes, elect lower magistrates
Comitia Centuriata
passed laws, issued war declarations, ratified treaties and elected magistrates, consisted of 193 members
Concilium Plebis
Council of the Common People, council for plebs, full legislative authority, make laws that supercede laws made by other councils
Tribune of the Plebs
responsible for rights of the lower class, sacro sanct, could veto senate
Virgil
Classical Roman poet, author of Aenied
Horace
wrote of human emotions in odes, satires, and epistles (letters)
Livy
Roman historian whose history of Rome filled 142 volumes (of which only 35 survive) including the earliest history of the war with Hannibal (59 BC to AD 17)
Gracchii
brothers, tried to reform gov't, failed, both assassinated by patricians
Pyrrhic Victory
a victory achieved at great cost.
Twelve Tables
The laws of the partricians were written down on twelve stone tablets.
Punic Wars
A series of three wars between Rome and Carthage, resulted in the destruction of Carthage and Rome's dominance over the western Mediterranean.
Triumvirate
In ancient Rome, a group of three leaders sharing control of the government, never really worked
Julius Caesar
Made dictator for life after conquering Gaul, assassinated by the Senate because they were afraid of his power
Gaul
an ancient region of western Europe that included what is now northern Italy and France and Belgium and part of Germany and the Netherlands
Augustus
Honorific name of Octavian, founder of the Roman Principate, the military dictatorship that replaced the failing rule of the Roman Senate.
Pax Romana
A period of peace and prosperity throughout the Roman Empire, lasting from 27 B.C. to A.D. 180.
caesaropapism
the doctrine that the state is supreme over the church in ecclesiastical matters
the barracks emperors
25 General-Emperors in 49 years
Diocletian
This emperor divided up the empire into east/west and made two rulers for each section with direct sub-rulers for each
Constantine
Emperor of Rome who adopted the Christian faith and stopped the persecution of Christians
Edict of Milan
Constantine makes Christianity the primary religion of the Roman Empire
Romulus Augustulus
the last emperor in the western Roman Empire, overthrown in 476 (the fall of Rome)
Battle of Adrianople
a Germanic group (Visigoths) defeated the roman legions
Byzantine Empire
Historians' name for the eastern portion of the Roman Empire, capital in Constantinople
Visigoths
Germanic tribe that was forced into the Roman Empire by the Huns
Ostrogoths
East Goths, driven westward by the Huns
Vandals
One of a group of Germanic tribes who invaded and destroyed territory in the Roman empire.
Lombards
German tribe that moved across the Alps into northern Italy
Franks
group of Germanic people who rose to prominence under the leadership of King Clovis
Clovis
Unified Gaul, founded Frankish monarchy, first Germanic King to accept Catholicism
Charles Martel
not really king: "mayor of the Palace," defeats Moors at Battle of Tours
Pepin the Short
solidifies French alliance with Pope, defeats Lombards and Byzantines
Donation of Pepin
Pepin gives large land grant to Pope
Charlesmagne
vastly expands Frankish kingdom, greatest of French kings, crowned Emperor of Romans in 800
Magyars
Originate in Dacia, claim to descend from Huns, beaten off by Charlesmagne
Feudalism
system in which vassals provide military service for lords in exchange for land, works when no $ in circulation
manorialism
Economic system during the Middle Ages that revolved around self-sufficient farming estates where lords and peasants shared the land.
Lord
landowner
Vassal
gets land from Lord for military service
Fief
land grant
Steward
in charge of manor while Lord is away
Serf
peasant bound to land, not Lord
Magna Carta
Great Charter forced upon King John of England by his barons, established that the power of the monarchy was not absolute and guaranteed trial by jury and due process of law to the nobility in 1215
The Crusades
A "holy war" that was issued by Pope Urban II so that they would be able to gain control of the Holy Land
William I
duke of Normandy who led the Norman invasion of England and became the first Norman to be King of England at Battle of Hastings in 1066
Domesday Book
the first census and a record of property of english people for the purpose of taxation.
Henry II
first Plantagenet King of England, marries Eleanor of Aquitane
Common Law
first national law system, no more Feudalism
Edward I
Conquers Wales, establishes Parliament
Parliament
Originally a tax collecting body, evolved into a law making body
Guilds
Association of merchants or artisans who cooperated to protect their economic interests
Apprentice
works for an expert to learn a trade
Journeyman
skilled worker employed by a master
Master
a skilled artisan who owned a business and employed others
Bourgeoisie
the middle class
Franciscans
founded by St. Francis, order stressed vows of poverty and gentleness and service to all creatures
Dominicans
Founded by Dominic De Guzman, "defended" the church against heresey.
Thomas Aquinas
Theologian, joins Christian Doctrine with Greek Philosophy, founder of scholasticism
Scholasticism
a medieval philosophical and theological system that tried to reconcile faith and reason
The Hundred Years War
Struggle between England and France for control of Flanders, disguised as struggle for French Monarchy
Bubonic Plague/Black Death
very fatal, wipes out 1/3 of Europeans (70,000,000), starts in 1348
Joan of Arc
peasant girl who led french army to victory over the english in the 100 year's war, insane
Wars of the Roses
civil war between 2 branches of Plantagenet family (Lancaster/York) for throne, won by York
Richard III
lasts 2 years as king of england
Henry VII
first of Tudor Dynasty (1485)
Holy Inquisition
to fight heresy, tortured those that went against church until they surrendered or died
Universities
first institutions of higher learning in Europe
Vernacular
the everyday speech of the people (as distinguished from literary language)
The Great Western Schism
When there were multiple Popes
Gothic Architecture
dark stone, windows narrow and tall, stained glass, sharp spires, dorrs are tall skinny and have sharp angles, everything vertical,dark inside,gargoyles,intimidating
Romanesque Architecture
solid stone churches, towers, few windows, slits, dark inside, for church and protection for people
Holy Roman Empire
Loose federation of mostly German states and principalities, headed by an emperor elected by the princes. Not holy, Roman, or an Empire
Habsburg Dynasty
long standing ruling family of Spain and Austria