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Geography of Ancient Greece

rugged, easy access to sea, can only farm grapes/olives, raise goats/sheep

Status of women in ancient Greece

low (except in Sparta)

Mycenaean Civilization

1600-1200 BC, powerful fortress cities, warlike and aggressive

responces to overpopulation in Archaic Era

infant exposure, prostitution, homosexuality, colonization


prostitute, long-term paid companion


a Greek colony's "mother city"

lyric poetry

designed to be sung, rhymed/had a meter, about personal relationships

epic poetry

long book-length poem, about mighty deeds/a grand adventure


lyric poet, female, from Lesbos


(sculpture) depiction of nude male athlete, motionless


(sculture) fully clothed women


eponymous archon, established timocracy, ends debt slavery


"illegal ruler," seized power by force, NOT NEGATIVE


Greek battle formation, rectangle made of lines of soldiers


geometry, the essence of the universe could be found in music and numbers


Seized power from Solon and exiled nobles who disagreed with him. He also distributed those nobles' land to poor farmers in need.


introduced democracy


perfected democracy


Greek writer of tragedies, author of Oedipus Rex


writer, used regular people instead of Gods, and tried to answer real life questions in playwrite


playwright (comedy)


Greek historian, "father of history"


ancient Greek historian, wrote history of the Peloponnesian War

Thales of Miletus

believed everything was water (lawl), universe is consistent and we can figure out these consistent universal laws


taught students to question everything, put to death for atheism/corrupting youth of Athens


student of Socrates, everything perfect exists on some ideal plane somewhere, we can get to ideal plane by rational thought


student of Plato, doesn't believe in ideal plane, all human knowledge can be systematized


father of geometry


"rule by the few," some wealthy nobles rule


"rule by wealth," Solon, 4 economic classes


highest class in timocracy, "500 bushels of wheat a year," can run for office


Rule by the people


ancient Greek epic poet, wrote Iliad and Odyssey


a central area in Greek cities used both as a marketplace and as a meeting place


Powerful Greek city-state that was a long time rival of Athens

The Persian Wars

A series of wars where the Greek city-states united against Persia, and managed to maintain control of the Aegean Sea and push the Persian Empire back

Battle of Marathon

a battle in 490 BC in which the Athenians and their allies defeated the Persians


temple in Athens built to honor the goddess Athena

Greek Classical Era

following Persian wars, an explosion of greek pride

Philip II of Macedon

loves Greek culture, King of Macedon and restored order before he won control of several Athens colonies in northern Greece


a word meaning to "imitate Greeks," Greek-speaking civilization which spread through many lands of the eastern Mediterranean and beyond following the conquests of Alexander the Great.

Alexander the Great

successor of Philip of Macedon, 1st global empire, but no lasting bureaucracy, spread of Hellenism is greatest achievement


Taught by Zeno, happiness can only be found when people gained inner peace by living in harmony with the will of God


Happiness was goal of life, can only be happy when centered on friendship

res novae

"new stuff," Rome hated it


great or very dignified seriousness, valued trait


commoners in Rome


a member of Roman aristocracy

Conflict of the Orders

plebeians threaten to leave for lack of power, so the patricians give them the written law, they can marry into patrican families, and their own assembly in Concilium Plebis


Two officials from the patrician class were appointed each year of the Roman Republic to supervise the government and command the armies

cursus honorum

the path of honor, to move up a level in the political sense


the supreme governing body, originally made up only of aristocrats.

Comitia Tributa

made up of 34 tribes, elect lower magistrates

Comitia Centuriata

passed laws, issued war declarations, ratified treaties and elected magistrates, consisted of 193 members

Concilium Plebis

Council of the Common People, council for plebs, full legislative authority, make laws that supercede laws made by other councils

Tribune of the Plebs

responsible for rights of the lower class, sacro sanct, could veto senate


Classical Roman poet, author of Aenied


wrote of human emotions in odes, satires, and epistles (letters)


Roman historian whose history of Rome filled 142 volumes (of which only 35 survive) including the earliest history of the war with Hannibal (59 BC to AD 17)


brothers, tried to reform gov't, failed, both assassinated by patricians

Pyrrhic Victory

a victory achieved at great cost.

Twelve Tables

The laws of the partricians were written down on twelve stone tablets.

Punic Wars

A series of three wars between Rome and Carthage, resulted in the destruction of Carthage and Rome's dominance over the western Mediterranean.


In ancient Rome, a group of three leaders sharing control of the government, never really worked

Julius Caesar

Made dictator for life after conquering Gaul, assassinated by the Senate because they were afraid of his power


an ancient region of western Europe that included what is now northern Italy and France and Belgium and part of Germany and the Netherlands


Honorific name of Octavian, founder of the Roman Principate, the military dictatorship that replaced the failing rule of the Roman Senate.

Pax Romana

A period of peace and prosperity throughout the Roman Empire, lasting from 27 B.C. to A.D. 180.


the doctrine that the state is supreme over the church in ecclesiastical matters

the barracks emperors

25 General-Emperors in 49 years


This emperor divided up the empire into east/west and made two rulers for each section with direct sub-rulers for each


Emperor of Rome who adopted the Christian faith and stopped the persecution of Christians

Edict of Milan

Constantine makes Christianity the primary religion of the Roman Empire

Romulus Augustulus

the last emperor in the western Roman Empire, overthrown in 476 (the fall of Rome)

Battle of Adrianople

a Germanic group (Visigoths) defeated the roman legions

Byzantine Empire

Historians' name for the eastern portion of the Roman Empire, capital in Constantinople


Germanic tribe that was forced into the Roman Empire by the Huns


East Goths, driven westward by the Huns


One of a group of Germanic tribes who invaded and destroyed territory in the Roman empire.


German tribe that moved across the Alps into northern Italy


group of Germanic people who rose to prominence under the leadership of King Clovis


Unified Gaul, founded Frankish monarchy, first Germanic King to accept Catholicism

Charles Martel

not really king: "mayor of the Palace," defeats Moors at Battle of Tours

Pepin the Short

solidifies French alliance with Pope, defeats Lombards and Byzantines

Donation of Pepin

Pepin gives large land grant to Pope


vastly expands Frankish kingdom, greatest of French kings, crowned Emperor of Romans in 800


Originate in Dacia, claim to descend from Huns, beaten off by Charlesmagne


system in which vassals provide military service for lords in exchange for land, works when no $ in circulation


Economic system during the Middle Ages that revolved around self-sufficient farming estates where lords and peasants shared the land.




gets land from Lord for military service


land grant


in charge of manor while Lord is away


peasant bound to land, not Lord

Magna Carta

Great Charter forced upon King John of England by his barons, established that the power of the monarchy was not absolute and guaranteed trial by jury and due process of law to the nobility in 1215

The Crusades

A "holy war" that was issued by Pope Urban II so that they would be able to gain control of the Holy Land

William I

duke of Normandy who led the Norman invasion of England and became the first Norman to be King of England at Battle of Hastings in 1066

Domesday Book

the first census and a record of property of english people for the purpose of taxation.

Henry II

first Plantagenet King of England, marries Eleanor of Aquitane

Common Law

first national law system, no more Feudalism

Edward I

Conquers Wales, establishes Parliament


Originally a tax collecting body, evolved into a law making body


Association of merchants or artisans who cooperated to protect their economic interests


works for an expert to learn a trade


skilled worker employed by a master


a skilled artisan who owned a business and employed others


the middle class


founded by St. Francis, order stressed vows of poverty and gentleness and service to all creatures


Founded by Dominic De Guzman, "defended" the church against heresey.

Thomas Aquinas

Theologian, joins Christian Doctrine with Greek Philosophy, founder of scholasticism


a medieval philosophical and theological system that tried to reconcile faith and reason

The Hundred Years War

Struggle between England and France for control of Flanders, disguised as struggle for French Monarchy

Bubonic Plague/Black Death

very fatal, wipes out 1/3 of Europeans (70,000,000), starts in 1348

Joan of Arc

peasant girl who led french army to victory over the english in the 100 year's war, insane

Wars of the Roses

civil war between 2 branches of Plantagenet family (Lancaster/York) for throne, won by York

Richard III

lasts 2 years as king of england

Henry VII

first of Tudor Dynasty (1485)

Holy Inquisition

to fight heresy, tortured those that went against church until they surrendered or died


first institutions of higher learning in Europe


the everyday speech of the people (as distinguished from literary language)

The Great Western Schism

When there were multiple Popes

Gothic Architecture

dark stone, windows narrow and tall, stained glass, sharp spires, dorrs are tall skinny and have sharp angles, everything vertical,dark inside,gargoyles,intimidating

Romanesque Architecture

solid stone churches, towers, few windows, slits, dark inside, for church and protection for people

Holy Roman Empire

Loose federation of mostly German states and principalities, headed by an emperor elected by the princes. Not holy, Roman, or an Empire

Habsburg Dynasty

long standing ruling family of Spain and Austria

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