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Geography of Ancient Greece
rugged, easy access to sea, can only farm grapes/olives, raise goats/sheep
responces to overpopulation in Archaic Era
infant exposure, prostitution, homosexuality, colonization
Seized power from Solon and exiled nobles who disagreed with him. He also distributed those nobles' land to poor farmers in need.
writer, used regular people instead of Gods, and tried to answer real life questions in playwrite
Thales of Miletus
believed everything was water (lawl), universe is consistent and we can figure out these consistent universal laws
taught students to question everything, put to death for atheism/corrupting youth of Athens
student of Socrates, everything perfect exists on some ideal plane somewhere, we can get to ideal plane by rational thought
The Persian Wars
A series of wars where the Greek city-states united against Persia, and managed to maintain control of the Aegean Sea and push the Persian Empire back
Philip II of Macedon
loves Greek culture, King of Macedon and restored order before he won control of several Athens colonies in northern Greece
a word meaning to "imitate Greeks," Greek-speaking civilization which spread through many lands of the eastern Mediterranean and beyond following the conquests of Alexander the Great.
Alexander the Great
successor of Philip of Macedon, 1st global empire, but no lasting bureaucracy, spread of Hellenism is greatest achievement
Taught by Zeno, happiness can only be found when people gained inner peace by living in harmony with the will of God
Conflict of the Orders
plebeians threaten to leave for lack of power, so the patricians give them the written law, they can marry into patrican families, and their own assembly in Concilium Plebis
Two officials from the patrician class were appointed each year of the Roman Republic to supervise the government and command the armies
passed laws, issued war declarations, ratified treaties and elected magistrates, consisted of 193 members
Council of the Common People, council for plebs, full legislative authority, make laws that supercede laws made by other councils
Roman historian whose history of Rome filled 142 volumes (of which only 35 survive) including the earliest history of the war with Hannibal (59 BC to AD 17)
A series of three wars between Rome and Carthage, resulted in the destruction of Carthage and Rome's dominance over the western Mediterranean.
In ancient Rome, a group of three leaders sharing control of the government, never really worked
Made dictator for life after conquering Gaul, assassinated by the Senate because they were afraid of his power
an ancient region of western Europe that included what is now northern Italy and France and Belgium and part of Germany and the Netherlands
Honorific name of Octavian, founder of the Roman Principate, the military dictatorship that replaced the failing rule of the Roman Senate.
A period of peace and prosperity throughout the Roman Empire, lasting from 27 B.C. to A.D. 180.
This emperor divided up the empire into east/west and made two rulers for each section with direct sub-rulers for each
Emperor of Rome who adopted the Christian faith and stopped the persecution of Christians
the last emperor in the western Roman Empire, overthrown in 476 (the fall of Rome)
Historians' name for the eastern portion of the Roman Empire, capital in Constantinople
vastly expands Frankish kingdom, greatest of French kings, crowned Emperor of Romans in 800
system in which vassals provide military service for lords in exchange for land, works when no $ in circulation
Economic system during the Middle Ages that revolved around self-sufficient farming estates where lords and peasants shared the land.
Great Charter forced upon King John of England by his barons, established that the power of the monarchy was not absolute and guaranteed trial by jury and due process of law to the nobility in 1215
A "holy war" that was issued by Pope Urban II so that they would be able to gain control of the Holy Land
duke of Normandy who led the Norman invasion of England and became the first Norman to be King of England at Battle of Hastings in 1066
the first census and a record of property of english people for the purpose of taxation.
founded by St. Francis, order stressed vows of poverty and gentleness and service to all creatures
a medieval philosophical and theological system that tried to reconcile faith and reason
The Hundred Years War
Struggle between England and France for control of Flanders, disguised as struggle for French Monarchy
Joan of Arc
peasant girl who led french army to victory over the english in the 100 year's war, insane
Wars of the Roses
civil war between 2 branches of Plantagenet family (Lancaster/York) for throne, won by York
to fight heresy, tortured those that went against church until they surrendered or died
dark stone, windows narrow and tall, stained glass, sharp spires, dorrs are tall skinny and have sharp angles, everything vertical,dark inside,gargoyles,intimidating
solid stone churches, towers, few windows, slits, dark inside, for church and protection for people
Holy Roman Empire
Loose federation of mostly German states and principalities, headed by an emperor elected by the princes. Not holy, Roman, or an Empire
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