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AP Comparative UK
Terms in this set (129)
a form of government in which a monarch acts as head of state within the parameters of a written document
institutions that have a strong political and legislative impact on the country
First Past the Post
the candidate that has more votes than anyone else wins.
- elected by the House of commons by the majority party, head of gov. and head of state - if there is no majority a coalition is formed
an alliance of two political parties in parliament to achieve a majority
Ministers and Senior Ministers who sit in the front row of government
Members of parliament who are not in the government or shadow cabinet.
Prime Ministers Questions
a televised event (specifically in the UK) in which the chief executive is questioned by members of political parties and must answer their questions.
State of Parliament Speech
"The Queen's Speech" which is written by the PM and opens a session of parliament
The Queens Speech
When the Queen opens a session of parliament by reading a speech the PM has written
the minority party/parties, it mirrors the majority party in structure
members of Her Majesty's Loyal Opposition, each has a position that coresponds to one in office, and the purpose is to oppose whatever policies the party advocates
"Special Elections" that take place only to fill vacancies
when a head of government rotates or changes the composition of ministers in their cabinet
Second-in-command to the prime minister
Chancellor of Exchequer
the British cabinet minister responsible for finance
a government minister for foreign relations
the position of the head of the Department of Defense
The minister in charge of the politics that is inside the country (innenriksminister)
Secretary of Northern Ireland
secretary of state of Ireland, devolution has reduced the Secretary of N. Ireland's role
Minister of Sport
in charge of the country's sports and tourism
The highest officer of the Crown who is head of the judiciary and who presides in the House of Lords
monarchy + house of lords → have no real political power
House of Lords
Upper house of Parliament, for nobles and bishops, and appointed dignitaries
the name given to people in the House of Lords
archbishop or a bishop that only votes on moral/religious legislature. 5 Archbishops (archbishop of Canterbury) and 21 other church officials
Distinguished members of the society who are given lifetime appointments to the House of Lords
full-time judges in the House of Lords, appointed by the Queen (with recommendation from the PM, with recommendation from the Lord Chancellor)
seats in the house of lords that were granted to aristocratic families in perpetuity but largely eliminated by recent legislation.
House of Lords Act 1999
Reduced the number of hereditary lords in the House of Lords from 1,330 to 92.
A working establishment where only people belonging to the union are hired. It was done by the unions to protect their workers from cheap labor.
the doctrine that all cabinet members must agree with all decisions
all members don't have to vote along party lines
An elected office that is predictably won by one party or the other, so the success of that party's candidate is almost taken for granted.
Quasi-nongovernmental organization. These organizations have considerable amount of influence over policy making in health care, education and housing.
No. 10 Downing Street
the prime minister's residence and the place where the cabinet meets
the road in Westminster where most governmental offices are located
direct contact made by an interest group representative in order to persuade government officials to support the policies their interest group favors
"Sleaze" and "Cash for Questions"
the name for Political Scandals. Cash for Questions was a political scandal in 1994 when parliamentary lobbyist Ian Greer was accused of bribing Conservative MPs in exchange for asking parliamentary questions on his behalf of the Egyptian owner Herrods Department Store.
the tendency for legislators that belong to the same party to vote the same way on a given bill
in a parliamentary system, the concept that all cabinet members agree on policy decisions and that all will be responsible for the results
A system of government in which the legislature selects the prime minister or president.
created in the late 1800s. The last prime minister was in the 1920s. Historically, this was the opposition party to the conservatives. The Conservatives were on the right center and the liberals were pure center. Politically, not much of a difference between the two, could live with each of them. The Liberals have declined throughout the 20th century, down to only holding 20 seats. They are around 50-55 seats today.
Scottish National Party
centre-left political party which campaigns for Scottish independence, most popular party in scotland.
Protestant N. Ireland who want to remain part of UK
Was the leader of the IRA. Is a left wing, Irish republican political party in Ireland. The name is Irish for "ourselves" or "we ourselves", although it is frequently mistranslated as "ourselves alone". Associated with the IRA.
the nationalist party in Wales that advocates more rights for the Welsh people, including use of the Welsh language
British National Party
is a far-right political party formed as a splinter group from the National Front by John Tyndall in 1982. Advocated for th separation of races.
a political party formed in Great Britain in 1900 characterized by the promotion of labor's interests and the socialization of key industries
New Labour Party
A political party in the UK Political System that mainly represents the British working class. It emerged from the trade union movement. A party that once depended on socialism now appeals to a cross class voting population and advocated for moderate free market policies with Tony Blair as the head of the party. The New Labour party demonstrates the growth and transformative aspect of political parties and the vital impact they have on the government as a whole.
(aka Unionist Party) The largest of British political parties.
The Third Way
political belief system of a compromise between capitalism and socialism; supported by the Labor Party (Tony Blair and Gordon Brown)
Irish Republican Army
An unofficial nationalist military force seeking independence for Ireland from Great Britain
Republic of Ireland
a sovereign state. Led by a President. Was a former part of the UK.
and unofficial military force. (Ex. IRA)
The Orange Order
A group of people who are protestant and very anti-catholic living in Norther Ireland
The election of Margret Thatcher, said to break from Post-War British history. Conservatives won a 44% majority
Margret Thatcher and the Conservatives won once again. 42% Majority, unemployment was high
Coal miners strike (1984-85)
an industrial dispute. Chairman of the National Coal Board, Ian MacGregor, announced the closure of 20 uneconomic coalmines that meant the loss of 20,000 jobs. More than half the country's miner went on strike. The strike soon became violent. As a result, coalmines were privatized.
Thatcher's 3rd consecutive win with the Conservative/Tory Party. Ran a campaign focused on lower taxes, a strong economy and defense. Tabloid media supported the Tories
only female PM in British history. She was courageous, decisive, clear in her beliefs, and intelligent
economic policy of British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher, which limited social welfare, privatized the economy, and restricted union power
there were a series of riots when the Poll Tax was implemented in 1990. Contributed to the downfall of Thatcher
Election of 1997
Labour Party won and elected Tony Blair. Minimum Wage, devolution referendums for Scotland and Wales and promised greater economic competence than the Conservatives. The conservatives had become unpopular after the events of Black Wednesday
British Labour Prime Minister, 1997 to 2007; staunch American Ally on war against terrorism
Good Friday Peace Agreement
Due to violence from the IRA the Good Friday Peace Agreement set up a devolved political system and created many institutions that would work in collaboration with the Irish Republic
Labour party under Tony Blair was re-elected
Foot and Mouth Disease
a viral disease that affects hooved animals. In 2001 it caused a crisis in British farms. Thousands of sheep and cattle were slaughtered to prevent the further spread and end of the infection
Labour party under Tony Blair won a 3rd term. Emphasized a strong economy. Won 355 seats but only received a popular vote of 35% which is the lowest any party has received in British history.
There was no majority. It became a Conservative - Liberal Democrat coalition. David Cameron of the conservatives became PM and Nick Clegg PM of the Lib-Dems
Conservative who became Prime Minister following the 2010 election
British statesman who was prime minister from 1990 until 1997 (born in 1943)
is the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and Leader of the Labour Party. Brown became Prime Minister in June 2007, after the resignation of Tony Blair and three days after becoming leader of the governing Labour Party.
Leader of the Liberal Democrats since 2007. His party is underrepresented in Parliament compared to the number of votes they received
the current leader of the Labour Party.
Bank of England
created in 1694 to ensure a stable money supply and to lay the foundation for a network of lending institutions
a sustained reduction in public spending intended to reduce the budget deficit.
meant to provide a disincentive to driving. The most well-known congestion tax is in London, where suburbanites must pay a steep fee to drive and park in the city. It has greatly increased Londoners' use of public transit.
National Health Service
employs 1.7 million people. It is extremely expensive to run and the waitlist for treatment is long. The UK often has to pay for patients to go abroad to receive treatment
a supranational organization for European countries formed after World War II to reduce trade barriers and increase cooperation among its members
Asylum Seekers v. Economic Migrants
Commonwealth of Nations
intergovernmental organization of 54 independent member states. Its members participate in the support of promotion of democracy, human rights, good governance, the rule of law, individual liberty, egalitarianism, free trade, multilateralism and world peace
Euroskepticism v. Europhile
Eurokepticsim is the doubt in joining the rest of Europe. Europhile is someone who supports cooperation and joining the rest of the UK.
the cornerstone of English justice and law. declared that the king and government were bound by the same laws as other citizens of England. Mentions due process and the right to a fair and speedy trial
In this bloodless revolution, the English Parliament and William and Mary agreed to overthrow James II for the sake of Protestantism. This led to a constitutional monarchy and the drafting of the English Bill of Rights.
English Bill of Rights
King William and Queen Mary accepted this document in 1689. It guaranteed certain rights to English citizens and declared that elections for Parliament would happen frequently. By accepting this document, they supported a limited monarchy, a system in which they shared their power with Parliament and the people.
Mad Cow Disease
the outbreak of Mad Cow disease changed British farming, food preparations and surgery/giving blood. Thousands of cows were slaughtered to prevent the spread and food was recalled
a period of often violent political struggle in N. Ireland, beginning in the 1960's and officially ending in 1998.
Winter of Discontent
1978-1979 Widespread strikes by local trade unions demanding pay raises for their members in UK on strike. People voted for new conservative government. Led Thatcher to become prime minister. She squeezed government spending, eliminated subsidies. "U-turn if you want to"
British Parliament set up an independent, public corporation, the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), supported by licensing fees. Elsewhere in Europe the typical pattern was direct control by the government.
Refers to destructive behavior that is performed by football fans and is widely considered to be unruly and destructive behavior. Actions such as brawling, vandalism and intimidation
the underground public transportation system in London
Wallace and Gromit
a Claymation animated show/movie short
the UK best universities as well as the worlds best universities
the British professional soccer league
built on the Meridian Line in Greenwich to celebrate the new Millennium. It is now a multifunctional sports and entertainment complex. It was used during the 2010 Olympics as the venue for gumnastics, baskteball finals and handball finals
Britain became a welfare state after WWII when the NHS was started.
public or social housing (like subsidized housing in the US)
Royal Ulster Constabulary
security force in Northern Ireland, local police that often fought with the IRA
a historic division of Ireland located in the northeastern part of the island
national flag of the United Kingdom
"Unionist"/"Republican" - re: No Eire
explains relationship of states to one another and the national government; each state gives citizens of other states the same rights
Civility: Phrasing in Parliament
dismantling and disposal of old nuclear reactors
Four National Football Sides
FIFA-the UK gets four teams because of nothern ireland, wales, scotland, england
Fusion of Government
(aka fusion of power) - opposite of separation of powers. Executive and legislative branches are combined into parliament
General Election (House of Commons)
an election in which all or most members of a given political body are up for election. Every five years - spots in parliament are filled by a general election
legislation proposed by a Cabinet minister
Jenkins Report/Electoral Reform
Labour Party v. New Labour
a public declaration of policies or intentions
the troubles (northern ireland) - the unionists (orange men) who wanted ireland to be part of britain would dress up in orange in catholic neighborhoods saying they couldn't be part of britain--incited violence
Middle Class v. Working Class
the action of forming or becoming a nation. And ...A political and economic theory of social organization that advocates that the means of production, distribution, and exchange should be owned or regulated by the community as a whole
the basic unit of money in Great Britain
To change from government or public ownership or control to private ownership or control.
a distinctive interpretation (especially as used by politicians to sway public opinion)
the supreme court is no longer part of the House of Lords
When one union goes on strike to support another striking union
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
official name of the British state
Vote of Confidence/"Responsibility Government"
a voting process in which people show support for a person or group in power
Voting Patterns in Wales, Scotland and South Ireland
War in Iraq
In Britain and elsewhere, a government statement that outlines proposed legislation; the last stage before the submission of a formal bill.
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