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Test Numero Dos
Terms in this set (99)
Benefits of LEA's
Use natural language pattern,s group choral reading, rich language experiences, print is meaningful, writing is valuable, serves as reading material
What happens on day 1 of LEA?
1. Provide a shared experience
2. Oral discussion
3. Write what students say
4. Finger point read the text aloud
What happens on day 2 of LEA?
Read and reread the text chorally and ask questions
What happens on day 3 of LEA?
Reread the text, make individual copies, work in small groups
What are the 3 levels of orthography?
1. Independent- what students should always be working on
2. Instructional- zone of proximal development (challenge)
3. Frustration- will not support learning
This stage of word knowledge the child is scribbling and forming letter like forms togehter
This stage of word knowledge the child is getting phonemic awareness, starting to spelled based on letter names, slowly pronouncing words they want to spell and by the end of this stage will use blends and digraphs.
This stage of word knowledge the child attends to vowel patterns within words, start to experiment with long vowel patters. May write fele --> feel
This stage of word knowledge the child is working on multi-syllabic words, learning about inflectional endings, homophones, compound words. Students have a lot of vocabulary growth. May write shoping --> shopping
Syllables and Affixes
This stage of word knowledge where students never grow out of. Relationship between spelling and meaning.
Example: wise- wisdom or sign- signal
__________ is knowing that letters represent sounds in words. Learning the distinction between writing and drawing.
This is an approach to learning orthographic knowledge. We are not teaching memorization but reason!
What are the 3 layers of English orthography?
1. Alphabetic- relationship between letters and sounds
2. Pattern- groups of letters with consistency
3. Meaning- groups of letters mean something
What stage of word knowledge is a student who writes this:
I am on the teme or I shot the ball in the gowl.
Within word because of the vowel patterns
tEAm or gOAl
When studying the alphabetic layer, students examine the relationship between _______ and _______
Letters and Sounds
What is the student doing correctly? What orthographic knowledge do they have control over?
What does the student use but confuse?
What is absent?
How do we determine a students stage of spelling development?
Sample Feature Guide
What is the role of the Kindergarten teacher in emergent literacy instruction?
Level the playing field. Provide engaging, doable, reading-related tasks.
Why is reading aloud to students important?
Models reading with expression, fluency, how to think about the story as it is read, and the dialect of literature.
_______________________ should be on students' instructional level and focus on decoding and comprehension?
Guided contextual reading
The ability to quickly recall and name each letter?
The ability to associate a given phoneme with the corresponding grapheme and to write the 26 letters
The ability to attend to the individual sounds within a spoken word
Knowledge of conventional letter-sound pairings in written English
Read three times in slightly different ways to increase the amount and quality of children's analytical talk as they answer carefully crafted questions
First reading: Introduce the story's problem, insert comments, ask a few key questions, explain a few key vocabulary words, and finally ask a "why" question calling for extended explanation
Second reading: Capitalize on children's growing comprehension of the story by providing enriched vocabulary explanations and asking additional inference and explanation questions
Third reading: Engage in guided reconstruction of the story where children do majority of work by recounting information as well as provide explanations and commentary
Repeated Interactive Read Aloud
Interactive reading experience - teacher AND child.
Teacher explicitly models the skills of proficient readers, including reading with fluency and expression.
Why do we do shared reading?
Provides struggling readers with necessary support, can build sight word knowledge and reading fluency, allow students to enjoy materials that they may not be able to read on their own, ensure that all students feel successful.
Shared activity before reading an unfamiliar story. It is previewing the pictures in a storybook to familiarize the child with the story prior to introducing the text.
What are the benefits of doing a picture walk?
Taking a picture walk assists a child with literacy growth
Picture walks spark interest in the story and set the purpose for the child to read and learn more about the story
Picture walks can help a child connect the visual images in the story to their own experiences and activate prior knowledge
They can give children a tool to organize the information in the story, increasing the child's comprehension of the story
The child is able to make predictions about what might happen in the story and how the story might end
Picture walks can also serve as an opportunity to introduce new vocabulary to a child so the story can be read with more fluidity and fewer breaks for explanations
You read a page while finger point tracking..
Then, the student reads the SAME page while finger point tracking echoing what you say
Echo Reading- helps demonstrate concept of word
We all read together while finger point tracking
I read a page, you read a page
Students each take turns reading aloud not knowing who will be called on to read next.
We never use this why?
Round Robin Reading- students aren't focused on the text, focused on what part they will read so they dont mess up and face embarrassment.
Students each take turns reading aloud each randomly choosing who will go next
What features are prominent in preschoolers' writing?
Pictures convey meaning
Begins to label and add "words" to pictures
Writes first name
Makes marks other than drawing on paper (scribbles)
Writes random recognizable letters to represent words
Tells about own pictures and writing
May copy signs, labels, name, and words
What can you expect in a Kindergartner's Writing?
Uses drawing to discover writing
Draws and labels pictures
Uses words or simple sentences to express ideas
Draws details rather than always writing details
Uses beginning and eventually ending sounds to write words
Shifts from pretending to read own writing to actually reading their own writing
The purpose is to teach children how to write well by allowing them to directly copy the demonstration of the teacher
Share the PEN!
Temporary, small-group lessons teaching those strategies that a group of students most need to practice
_________ lessons should be taught after a whole-class lesson once other students are actively engaged in independent writing
What are some comprehension strategies?
Building on background knowledge, using sensory images, questioning, making inferences or predictions, making connections, determining importance
_______ is an approach to read-alouds that focuses on enhancing young children's ability to create meaning from the text.
What is the importance of a Text Talk?
Researchers suggest that the most valuable part of reading aloud to children is that it gives them experience with "decontextualized language."
This language requires children to make sense of concepts and ideas that are not immediate - they are beyond the here and now.
In order to gain the benefits from decontextualized text, children cannot hear it. They need to engage in it through talking about the ideas.
What are the goals of a Text Talk lesson?
1. Promote comprehension of text
2. Further children's language development
Teachers should acknowledge a student's comment or response related to their own experiences while CONNECTING it to the story being read.
Words that are in everyday language you would expect a child to know (i.e., cat, house, mom, book)
Words that are in everyday language that you would not expect a child to know, but that are characteristic of mature language users (i.e., gloomy, joyful, masterpiece, industrious)
Words that are domain specific (i.e., amino acid, economics, isotope, crepe)
In using ________, the teacher intersperses reading with OPEN-ENDED questions and discussion, and follows each story with explicit attention to vocabulary words.
What are the BIG 5 in Reading Instruction?
2. Phonemic Awareness
What does reading aloud offer to children?
This experience also allows for children to build images and glean meaning from those mental images within a sustained activity. Children must "use words to create a world of meaning."
Combining guided conversations with reflective thinking, __________________ lessons engage children in strategic listening, speaking, reading and writing about text. Allows teachers to scaffold children's understanding of the book being read, model strategies for making inferences and explanations, and teach vocabulary and concepts.
Interactive Read Aloud
So what do you do during small group reading instruction?
Oral Reading (work on fluency & decoding), Word Study (Phonemic Awareness, Phonics, Word Features), Vocabulary (sight words in the primary grades and sophisticated words), Comprehension
___________ = accurate, rate, prosody
One student is the leader and reads aloud the text while the other students in the group whisper read along with the leader
Each student whisper reads the text at his or her own speed (great for rereading)
Text with slashes separating phrases to scaffold students into naturally recognizing phrases of spoken text.
The purpose of _________ is to provide beginning readers with the knowledge they need to effortlessly recognize words. It is not an instructional program, but it is an instructional PROCESS. The ultimate goal is for students to quickly recognize patterns in words for decoding and comprehension
Comparing and contrasting patterns by storing in columns
Comparing and contrasting patterns in words by sorting in columns WITHOUT headers
Comparing and contrasting patterns in words by sorting in columns WITHOUT looking at cards (they are read aloud by another person).
Students are given the header words and the teacher calls out another word - students write the word under the correct header.
Students time themselves and attempt to beat their own time.
Students turn over cards to find word matches (words that have the same pattern).
Students physically move letters around to create and re-create words based on the patterns they are learning.
Comprehension is the __________________________.
Ability to understand texts
Strategies for comprehension?
Predicting, previewing text structures, picture walk, visualizing, making connections, questioning, summarizing, determining importance.
While you are working with a group, what are the rest of your students doing?
What could be present at the literacy stations/centers?
Reading practice (buddy reading), listening to reading through ipad, CD, computer, word study practice, comprehension and vocabulary activities (big book word tracking, drawing response, graphic organizers), writing (typing, journalism, blogs)
What is independent reading important?
What level of text should students be using during independent reading time?
Why do you need reading assessments?
Informal assessments provide a teacher with valuable information about what a child can and cannot do, Allows you to set realistic expectations and to plan meaningful instruction that meets individual needs, Helps identify children who are at-risk for reading failure, Ongoing assessments can show growth (or lack thereof)
What are you assessing during reading assessments?
Concept of print, alphabet knowledge, concept of word in text, phonemic awareness, word recogintion
At the beginning of______________, these assessments give you information about whether a child has been exposed to books or not and what type of, if any, literacy experiences they have had at home or in preschool.
If students are to make growth in reading, they must practice reading with guidance at their ___________________________________.
Instructional reading level
If students practice reading at their _________________________, the text will prove to be too difficult to make progress in reading skill and students will learn to dislike reading and develop low self-efficacy in reading.
frustrational reading levels
If students practice reading at their ___________________________ with guidance, they will not grow as the text will not push them to make progress in reading skill.
Independent reading level
Students should read _____________ text independently for sustained periods of time to refine and practice already possessed skills.
In order to determine a student's independent, instructional, and frustrational reading levels, the teacher must administer an ____________________________.
informal reading inventory (IRI).
An _____ is an individualized assessment in which a student reads a series of graded, reading passages.
During IRI's the examiner evaluates __________, ______________, and ____________.
Reading accuracy, reading rate, and reading comprehension
In order to offer effective reading instruction, we have to match the __________________ to the _____________________.
STUDENT'S LEVEL to the BOOK'S LEVEL.
_______________ is a measure of the ease with which a student can read text OR how difficult the text is to read and understand.
______________ is usually determined using a formula that takes into account:
Word length (# of syllables)
Word frequency (high or low frequency)
Why should you encourage invented spelling in your classroom?
demonstrates students' current understandings of how words work,
allows them to work out misunderstandings in writing,
and has been shown to support conventional spelling acquisition far better than forcing conventional spelling when a child has not yet internalized English spelling patterns
as well as being more likely to foster an enjoyment of writing
How should you select words for spelling tests?
by grouping words with similar patterns that students are learning in word study
and by using a different set of words for each word study group so that the words are appropriate for each group
Why should you teach word study?
teaches the spelling of specific words
as well as teaches general patterns of English spelling
What are the three components of fluency that should be addressed in guided reading (and all reading instruction)?
accuracy, rate, and prosody
readers have highly automatic word recognition, and the skills to sound out unfamiliar words
readers use _______ (pitch, stress, and timing) to convey meaning when they read aloud
readers read at an appropriate ______of speed for their age or grade level
What kind of writing is an LEA?
What type of writing lesson includes a mini-lesson, independent writing while the teacher conferences with individual students, and sharing of writing?
What type of writing lesson would be most similar to guided reading?
What is the difference between shared writing and interactive writing?
in shared writing the teacher holds the pen while the students help craft the message and
in interactive writing the students take turns holding the pen to add particular pieces to the writing while still helping to craft the message
What can IRI's tell us?
Read with accuracy
Read with prosody
Read at an appropriate rate
Understand what they have read
If they rely more on contextual clues or letter-sound clues
Self-correct (always or only when errors interrupt meaning)
Take risks or rely on the teacher when in doubt
The three components of an IRI?
Word recognition in isolation, contextual oral reading, comprehension
Timed word recognition assess ____________.
Untimed word recognition assess ____________.
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