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93 terms

Human Bio: Skeletal System

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calcaneous (tob)
short bone
frontal (tob)
flat bone
femur (tob)
long bone
humerus (tob)
long bone
mandible (tob)
flat bone
metacarpal (tob)
long bone
radius (tob)
long bone
sternum (tob)
flat bone
vertebra (tob)
irregular bone
site of spongy bone in the adult
epiphysis
site of compact bone in the adult
diaphysis
site of hematopoiesis in the adult
epiphysis
sientific name for bone shaft
diaphysis
site of fat storage in adult
yellow marrow cavity
site of longitudinal growth in a child
epiphyseal plate
when blood calcium levels begin to drop below hompeostatic levels, ___ is released, causing calcium to be released from bones
parathyroid hormone
mature bone cells, called ___, maintain bone in viable state
osteocytes
disuse such as that caused by paralysis or severe lack of exercise results in muscle and bone____
atrophy
large tubercles and or increased deposit of bony matrix occur at sites of
stress and or tension
immature, or matrix depositing, bone cells are referred to as
osteoblasts
__ causes blood calcium to be deposited in bones as calcium salts
calcitonin
bones cells that liquefy bone matrix and release calcium to the blood are called___
osteoclasts
our astronauts must do isometric exercises when in space because bones atrophy under conditions of weightlessness due to lack of
gravity
layers of calcified matrix
concentric lamellae
"residences" of osteocytes
lacunae
longitudinal canal, carrying blood vessels and nerves
central (haversian) canal
nonliving, structural part of bone
bone matrix
tiny canals, connecting lacunae
canaliculi
when a bone forms from a fibrous membrane, the process is caled ___ ossification
membraneous
when trapped in lacunae osteoblasts change into __ _
osteocytes
large numbers of ___ are found in the inner periosteum layer
osteoblasts
___ ossification centers appear in the epiphyses of a long bone
secondary
epiphyseal plates are made of __ _
hyaline cartilages
in appositional growth, bone reabsorption occurs on the ___ surface
endosteal
Maturation of newly formed none matrix takes ___
ten days
what are sinuses?
mucus lined air filled cavities in bone
what purpose do sinuses serve?
lighten skull and serve as chambers for speech
structure that encloses the nerve cord
vertebral arch
weight bearing part of the vertebrae
body
provides levers for the muscles to pull against
spinous process and transverse process
provides an articulation point for the ribs
body, transverse process
openings allowing spinal nerves to pass
intervertebral foramina
type of vertebrae containing foramina in the transverse proceses, through which the vertebral arteries ascend to reach the brain
atlas, axis, cervical vertebrae
its dens provides a pivot for rotation of hte first cervical vertebrae
axis
transverse processes have facets for articulation with ribs, spinous process points sharply downward
thoracic vertebra
composite bones, articulates with the hip bone laterally
sacrum
massive vertebrae, weight sustaining
lumbar vertebra
tailbone, vestigal fused vertebrae
coccyx
supports the head allows the rocking motion of the occipital condyles
atlas
seven components unfused
atlas, axis, cervical vertebrae
twelve components unfused
thoracic vertebrae
exaggerated thoracic curvature
kyphosis
vertabral column is displaced laterally
scoliosis
intervertebral discs are made of
fibrocartilage tissue
discs provide what to the spinal collumn
flexibility
the ___ girdle is formed by the articulation of the hip bones and the sacrum
pelvic
the tough, fibrous connective tissue covering of a bone is the
periosteum
the point of fusion of the three bones forming a coxal bone is the
acetabulum
the large nerve that must be avoided when giving injections into the buttock muscles is the
sciatic nerve
the long bones of a fetus are constructed of
hyaline cartilage
bones that provide the most protection to the abdominal viscera are the
hip bones
the fist major event of fracture healing is
hematoma formation
bone is broken cleanly the ends do not penetrate the skin
simple fracture
nonsurgical realignment of broken bone ends and splinting of bone
closed reduction
a break common in children, bone splinters , but break is incomplete
greenstick fracture
a fracture in which the bone is crushed common in the vertebral column
compression fracture
surgical realignment of broken bone ends
open reduction
a result of twisting forces
spiral fracture
a __ usually forms at a fracture site
hematoma
__ at the fracture site die
osteocytes
nonbony debris at hte fracture site is removed by
phagocytes
growth of a new capillary supply into the region produces
granulation tissue
osteoblasts from the ___ migrate to the fracture site
periosteum
the __ is the first to repair mass to splint the broken bone
fibrocartilage callus
the bony callus is initionally composed of
spongy bone
has amphiarthrotic and synarthrotic examples
cartilagenous
all have a fibrous capsule lined with synovial membrane surrounding a joint cavity
synovial
bone regions united by fibrous connective tissue
fibrous, suture
joints between skill bones
fibrous, suture
hip elbow knee
synovial
all examples are diarthrosis
synovial
pubic symphisis
cartilagenous, symphysis
all reinforced by ligaments
synovial
joint providing the most protection to underlying structures
fibrous suture
often contains fluid filled cushion
synoival
childs long bone growth plate made of hyaline cartilage
cartilagenous epiphyseal disk
associated with bursa
synovial
age related erosion of articular cartilages and formation of painful bony spurs
osteoarthritis
__ arthritis results from bacterial invasion
acute
autoimmune disease
rheumatoid arthritis
high levels of uric acid in the blood may lead to
gout
a soft bone condition
rickets
atrophy and thinning of bone owing to hormonal changes or inactivity
osteoporosis