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calcaneous (tob)

short bone

frontal (tob)

flat bone

femur (tob)

long bone

humerus (tob)

long bone

mandible (tob)

flat bone

metacarpal (tob)

long bone

radius (tob)

long bone

sternum (tob)

flat bone

vertebra (tob)

irregular bone

site of spongy bone in the adult


site of compact bone in the adult


site of hematopoiesis in the adult


sientific name for bone shaft


site of fat storage in adult

yellow marrow cavity

site of longitudinal growth in a child

epiphyseal plate

when blood calcium levels begin to drop below hompeostatic levels, ___ is released, causing calcium to be released from bones

parathyroid hormone

mature bone cells, called ___, maintain bone in viable state


disuse such as that caused by paralysis or severe lack of exercise results in muscle and bone____


large tubercles and or increased deposit of bony matrix occur at sites of

stress and or tension

immature, or matrix depositing, bone cells are referred to as


__ causes blood calcium to be deposited in bones as calcium salts


bones cells that liquefy bone matrix and release calcium to the blood are called___


our astronauts must do isometric exercises when in space because bones atrophy under conditions of weightlessness due to lack of


layers of calcified matrix

concentric lamellae

"residences" of osteocytes


longitudinal canal, carrying blood vessels and nerves

central (haversian) canal

nonliving, structural part of bone

bone matrix

tiny canals, connecting lacunae


when a bone forms from a fibrous membrane, the process is caled ___ ossification


when trapped in lacunae osteoblasts change into __ _


large numbers of ___ are found in the inner periosteum layer


___ ossification centers appear in the epiphyses of a long bone


epiphyseal plates are made of __ _

hyaline cartilages

in appositional growth, bone reabsorption occurs on the ___ surface


Maturation of newly formed none matrix takes ___

ten days

what are sinuses?

mucus lined air filled cavities in bone

what purpose do sinuses serve?

lighten skull and serve as chambers for speech

structure that encloses the nerve cord

vertebral arch

weight bearing part of the vertebrae


provides levers for the muscles to pull against

spinous process and transverse process

provides an articulation point for the ribs

body, transverse process

openings allowing spinal nerves to pass

intervertebral foramina

type of vertebrae containing foramina in the transverse proceses, through which the vertebral arteries ascend to reach the brain

atlas, axis, cervical vertebrae

its dens provides a pivot for rotation of hte first cervical vertebrae


transverse processes have facets for articulation with ribs, spinous process points sharply downward

thoracic vertebra

composite bones, articulates with the hip bone laterally


massive vertebrae, weight sustaining

lumbar vertebra

tailbone, vestigal fused vertebrae


supports the head allows the rocking motion of the occipital condyles


seven components unfused

atlas, axis, cervical vertebrae

twelve components unfused

thoracic vertebrae

exaggerated thoracic curvature


vertabral column is displaced laterally


intervertebral discs are made of

fibrocartilage tissue

discs provide what to the spinal collumn


the ___ girdle is formed by the articulation of the hip bones and the sacrum


the tough, fibrous connective tissue covering of a bone is the


the point of fusion of the three bones forming a coxal bone is the


the large nerve that must be avoided when giving injections into the buttock muscles is the

sciatic nerve

the long bones of a fetus are constructed of

hyaline cartilage

bones that provide the most protection to the abdominal viscera are the

hip bones

the fist major event of fracture healing is

hematoma formation

bone is broken cleanly the ends do not penetrate the skin

simple fracture

nonsurgical realignment of broken bone ends and splinting of bone

closed reduction

a break common in children, bone splinters , but break is incomplete

greenstick fracture

a fracture in which the bone is crushed common in the vertebral column

compression fracture

surgical realignment of broken bone ends

open reduction

a result of twisting forces

spiral fracture

a __ usually forms at a fracture site


__ at the fracture site die


nonbony debris at hte fracture site is removed by


growth of a new capillary supply into the region produces

granulation tissue

osteoblasts from the ___ migrate to the fracture site


the __ is the first to repair mass to splint the broken bone

fibrocartilage callus

the bony callus is initionally composed of

spongy bone

has amphiarthrotic and synarthrotic examples


all have a fibrous capsule lined with synovial membrane surrounding a joint cavity


bone regions united by fibrous connective tissue

fibrous, suture

joints between skill bones

fibrous, suture

hip elbow knee


all examples are diarthrosis


pubic symphisis

cartilagenous, symphysis

all reinforced by ligaments


joint providing the most protection to underlying structures

fibrous suture

often contains fluid filled cushion


childs long bone growth plate made of hyaline cartilage

cartilagenous epiphyseal disk

associated with bursa


age related erosion of articular cartilages and formation of painful bony spurs


__ arthritis results from bacterial invasion


autoimmune disease

rheumatoid arthritis

high levels of uric acid in the blood may lead to


a soft bone condition


atrophy and thinning of bone owing to hormonal changes or inactivity


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