45 terms

chemistry - physical and chemical properties

vocabulary
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Physical Change
A change that only involves the particles gaining or losing kinetic energy. The particles do not change their chemical composition.
Chemical Change
A change that results in the products having a different chemical make up to the reactants
Solid
When the particles are closely packed
Liquid
When the particles are closely packed and fill the bottom of the container
Gas
When the particles are lose their forces of attraction between each other and spread apart
Melting
solid to liquid
Freezing/Solidification
liquid to solid
Evaporation/Boiling
liquid to gas
Condensation
gas to liquid
Sublimation
solid to gas
Resublimation/Deposition
gas to solid
Temperature
A measure of the kinetic energy of the particles
Dissolving
When the particles of two different substances form a mixture by particles distributing between each other
Diffusion
When particles move from an area of high concentration to low concentration
Expansion
Occurs when a substance is heated and the particles have more kinetic energy. The substance gets bigger
Contraction
Occurs when a substance is cooled and the particles have less kinetic energy. The substance gets smaller
Density
How closely packed together the particles are. The amount of mass in a given volume
Test for Hydrogen
Pop test
Test for Oxygen
Glowing splint test
Test for Carbon Dioxide
Limewater test
Fuel
A material that contains stored energy (chemical potential energy), which can be released by burning in oxygen
Combustion
Fuel burning in oxygen
Complete Combustion
Combustion where oxygen is plentiful - the products are always carbon dioxide and water
Incomplete Combustion
Combustion where oxygen is minimal - the products are a random mixture of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide (toxic), carbon (soot) and water
Oil
A solid to liquid fuel that is produced from dead sea animals and plants under the sea over millions of years
Natural Gas
A gaseous fuel that is produced from dead sea animals and plants under the sea over millions of years
Coal
A solid fuel that is produced from dead plant material under layers of land over thousands to millions of years
Methane
A 1 carbon fuel
Ethane
A 2 carbon fuel
Propane
A 3 carbon fuel
Butane
A 4 carbon fuel
Physical Properties
Immediately observable characteristics of a substance
Chemical Properties
Characteristics observable by a substance only when it is reacted with another substance
Physical State
Whether the substance is a solid, liquid or gas
Melting Point
The temperature at which a solid turns into a liquid
Boiling Point
The temperature at which a liquid turns into a gas
Malleability
The ability of a substance to be beaten into a shape
Ductility
The ability of a substance to be stretched into a wire
Colour
The wavelengths reflected by the substance
Texture
The way a substance feels (smooth or rough)
Density
The amount of mass in a given volume
Volume
The amount of space a substance takes up
Mass
The amount of matter in a substance
Electrical Conductivity
The ability of a substance to allow electricity to pass through it
Heat Conductivity
The ability of a substance to get hot or cold