Combo with Revolts in Latin America section 3 and 7 others
Terms in this set (149)
A Spanish-born Spaniard or mainland Spaniard residing in the New World, as opposed to a person of full Spanish descent born in the Americas. Came from Spain to Portugual.
The intelligent and skillful leader of the Haitians who was a former slave. Led Haiti to independence through slave revolt from Spain.
A European-descended Latin American. They are white.
Father Miguel Hidalgo
Creole priest who called for Mexicans to fight for independence, for the abolition of slavery and for reforms to improve conditions for Native Americans. He became the symbol of Mexican Independence.
A person of Native American and European descent.
A person of African and European descent. Wealthy and powerful.
Father José Morelos
A mestizo who wanted universal manhood suffrage, the abolition of slavery, and improved conditions for Mexicans in general.
José de San Martin
A creole who helped several South American countries win freedom from Spain. Joined forces with Bolivar together they freed Chili.
A leader in the struggle for independence in South America. He helped free Venezuela, Colombia, Panama, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia from Spanish rule.
A member of the Portuguese royal family, who ruled Brazil and declared it independent in 1822. He accepted a constitution that provided for the freedom of press, religion, and an elected legislature.
One who loves and defends his or her country. Fights for self government, which is called autonomy (for the people). Napoleon, Robespierre, Simon Bolivar, Toussaint L'Ouverture,Father José Morelos,José de San Martin and Emperor Agustin 1st.
Emperor Agustin Ist.
A conservative creole in Mexico, alarmed by the liberal forced consitution on the king, reached out to lower classes to overthrow the Spanish viceroy, Mexico independent
How does Haiti gain its independence?
In 1791, Toussaint L'Ouverture led slaves in revolt.
By 1798, enslaved Haitians had been freed.
In 1802, Napoleon sent an army to recapture Haiti.
Napoleon's forces agreed to a truce, or temporary peace.
In 1804, Haitian leaders declared independence.
How did the revolt in Haiti scare the Creoles in Latin America?
They wanted power over their land like the haitians, but didn't want their ways of life to change.
How did Mexico finally gain independence?
Father Miguel Hidalgo and José Morales led popular revolts.
Rebels led by Agustín de Iturbide overthrew the Spanish viceroy, creating an independent Mexico.
Iturbide took the title of emperor, but was quickly overthrown.
Liberal Mexicans set up the Republic of Mexico.
How did the events in Spain affect the fight for Mexican independence?
The liberators of Spain forced the King to issue a constitution, this caused a feeling of nationalism
What other revolutions helped the Latin Americans feel like the time was right for a revolution of their own?
The French and American revolution
How were the goals of the South American revolution different than the results?
They gained independence from Europe, but they fail to address any of the social class problems that exist.
Describe the colonial legacy in Latin America?
Life stayed the same for most people in Latin America
the traits and characteristics that remain in a region once occupied by a foreign power
loyalty to the interests of a particular region
powerful South American dictator or leader
The system which Latin Americans worked for large land owners, and were forced into debt. It was very much like share-cropping.
Describe the war with the USA
In 1845 the United States annexed Texas. Mexico saw this as a declaration of war.The United invaded and defeated the Mexico gaining almost half its territories
Explain the change made in Mexico
After the war the liberals took power and revised the constitution. Took power away from military and church. Made church sell unused lands to peasants.
What struggles did Mexico go through as it tried to find stability in the 1800's
Mexico was dominated by large landowners, army leaders and the Catholic Church. There was a divide in the ruling elite between conservative and liberals. Bitter battles between the two groups led to revolts and the rise of dictators.
Latin America Independence cause
Effect of the Bourbon Reform: Latin America social structures changed. Governmental power of creoles was limited and the profit to the crown was maximized.
Independence Cause: Church
sold land to the Creoles
independence cause: Enlightenment
John Locke and Thomas Jefferson were influenced by the Enlightenment
Independence cause: Free trade policy
Bourbon Reform/administrative reform wanted to bring money to the government.
Independence Cause: Napoleon's brother on Spanish Throne
The effect of Napoleon's brother on the throne in Spain was that people said this was supposed to happen due to divine right. In other words because God made it happen.
Creole Responses to Napoleon's brother in law on Spanish Throne
they refused legitimacy
Creoles had little representation in their daily lives
they questioned authority
How non-white reacted to Napoleon's brother on throne:
they wanted rights and freedoms they had never had before like citizenship.
They also wanted to ally with anyone who would grant citizenship.
Creoles wanted to instill persuasion in the lower classes by Nativism.
Drawbacks and pluses to Plantation slavery
less legal access to daily life
less social access to daily life
less freedom of movement.
more family opportunities
Drawbacks/pluses to urban slavery
more social freedoms
money could be raised easier
access to court system to fight for better life styles.
Argentina 1st movement
1806: Great Britain failed to take Buenos Aires.
creoles forced to defend, vice royalty flees.
Jose De San Martin joins Buenos Aires in 1812.
1814-Ferdinand comes back.
La Patria Boba or Silly Republic, Junta formed 1808.
Simon Bolivar liberates Venezuela
1816 all independence movements stopped..
Chile: San Martin
Elites do not want to share wealth and power-Tupac Amaru 2nd of Peru is an example of this.
1820: Colonial Agustine de Iterbide, creole and royalist switches sides. 1821: Independence achieved.
plan of Iguala: declares independece. Invited Bourbons to send prince for Mexican crown.
promised protection of church and military.
peninsulares kept property and position.
King John left for Portugal in 1821, Son Pedro 1st was given power in Brazil. Pedro 1st would see Brazil gain independence.
Morelos: Sentiments of a nation
Mestizo parish priest committed to Church and private property for elite oppression.
advocated class and race equality.
Creoles hating being seen as 2nd class citizens compared to the Peninsular from Spain.
Napoleon's brother in law on the Spanish Throne.
Independence causes continued
How creoles gained independence
Nationalism-all people made into Mexicans.
Nativism-same as Nationalism.
Former male slaves were promised citizenship if they fought in the independence wars.
Nativism-Venezuelan Creoles were outnumbered against the Spanish. Creoles didn't have support from lower classes.
Effects of Independence Wars
New Constitutions were formed
Independence was achieved.
Governments had to figure out how they wanted to rule each country. Had to figure out how each country was legitimate.
-spanish born members of the highest social class
-dominated Latin American political and social life
-held top jobs in government and Church
-European descended Latin Americans who owned haciendas, ranches, and mines
-resented their second class status
-people of Native American and European descent
-angry at being denied status, wealth, and power
-suffered misery under the Spanish
-people of African and European descent
-angry at being denied status, wealth, and power
-slaves strived for freedom
Who is Simón Bolívar?
-young creole who traveled in Europe and was inspired by the ideals of liberty, equality, and fraternity
-admired Enlightenment ideas but were reluctant to act
Describe Napoleon's invasion in Spain
-sparked widespread rebellion
-placed his brother Joseph on Spanish throne
How were slaves treated in France?
-half a million Africans enslaves on sugar plantations
-overworked and underfed
Who is Toussaint L'Ouverture?
-a self-educated former slave who led a slave revolt
-inspired by talk of liberty and equality
-brilliant general, inspiring commander
-fighting took more lives than any other revolution
-France, Spain, and Britain all sent armies to fight against them
-goal achieved, slavery abolished, Toussaint's forces controlled much of the island
How does Haiti win it's independence?
-Napoleon Bonaparte sent troops to reconquer colony, but Toussaint insisted to take arms and resist the invaders
-French agreed to truce, but captured Toussaint
-yellow fever destroyed French army and caused them to surrender
Who is Father Miguel Hidalgo?
-creole priest in Mexico who raised his voice for freedom
-presided over the poor rural parish of Dolores
-Sept 15, 1810 rang bells and called people to prayer
-"My children, will you be free?"
-poor mestizos and Native Americans rallied to Father Hidalgo and marched to the outskirts of Mexico City
-creoles supported at first, but rejected end to slavery and reforms for Native American conditions
Who is Father José Morelos?
-mestizo who called for social and political reform
-wanted to improve conditions for Mexicans, abolish slavery, and give vote to all men
-led rebel forces until he was captured and shot
Who is Agustín de Iturbide?
-conservative creole in Mexico
-worried government would make liberal reforms
-spent years fighting Mexican revolutionaries, but then reached out to them
-overthrew Spanish viceroy backed by creoles, mestizos, and Native Americans
-took title Emperor Agustín I when Mexico gained independence but liberal Mexicans topped monarch and set up republic
Describe the events that occurred in Venezuela
-Bolívar led an uprising and established a republic
-republic was toppled by conservatives
-civil war raged for years
-Bolívar sent into exile twice to Haiti
-Bolívar marched troops across Andes and attacked Spanish at Bogotá, capital of New Granada (Colombia)
-formed alliance with Venezuelan cowboys
-surprised spanish and was victorious
-freed Venezuela --> named "Liberator"
Who is José de San Martín?
-creole who joined forces with Bolívar when he moved into Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia
-helped Argentina win freedom from Spain
-led army across Andes from Argentina to Chile
-defeated Spanish at Chile and moved to Peru
-passed command to Bolívar
Bolívar works to unite lands
-very difficult because of many bitter rivalries
-split into four independent lands: Colombia, Panama, Venezuela, and Ecuador
-power struggles led to many civil wars
Who is Dom Pedro?
-took rule of Brazil when father returned to Portugal after Napoleon's armies had conquered Portugal
-became emperor of independent Brazil
-accepted a constitution: freedom of the press, freedom of religion, elected legislature
-remained a monarchy until social and political turmoil led it to become a republic
Spanish born, members of the highest social class, who dominated Latin American political and social life
European-descended Latin Americans who owned the haciendas, ranches, and mines- resented their second class status
people of Native American and European descent (denied rights because of skin color)
people of African and European descent (denied rights because of skin color)
young creole who traveled in Europe and were inspired by the ideals of "Liberty, equality, and fraternity"
Father Miguel Hidalgo
Father Jose Morelos
Jose de San Martin
people of Spanish descent born in the colonies
spaniards from Spain
December 1804, ordered the confiscation of charitable Church funds in America and their remission to Spain
immediate cause of Latin American wars for independence
Falkland islands; captured by British in 1806 along with Buenos Aires
prolonged, confused affair. Not organized with central leadership. Had no Continental Congress, nor a single recognized leader. Lasted from 1810 to 1824
priest who called for rebellion against French-controlled Spain (Mexico) on 16 Sep. 1810
continued Mexican revolution after Hidalgo was executed in 1811. Captured and executed in 1815
Spanish king restored to thrown after Napoleon is driven out of Iberian Peninsula in 1814
issued by mestizo Vincente Guerrero and Loyalist Creole General Augustín de Iturbide in February 1821; Mexico would be a monarchy, Catholicism would remain only official religion, all Mexicans would enjoy equality under law
proclaimed emperor of Mexico by Congress in May 1822; Augustín I. He failed to unite the country, and abdicates his thrown in March 1823 after Colonel Antonio López de Santa Anne moved his army against him
Mexico's first president
primary leader of struggle for independence in northern South America. He was a member of one of the richest, most powerful Creole families in Venezuela
literally brown - people of mixed races. They were excluded from rights of full citizenship in Venezuela
plainsmen, cowboys, of Venezuelan prairies
title given to Bolívar by city council after he entered Caracas
only province of Spanish America that remained in revolt after Bolívar fled to Jamaica in May 1815
colonial army officer who served in Spain, played a major role in securing the independence of Argentina
soldiers from the Napoleonic wars who fought for Bolívar as mercenaries
one of the countries that becomes an independent nation after breaking away from the United Provinces
another country that becomes an independent nation after breaking away from the United Provinces
a country that becomes independent
after breaking away from the United Provinces
installed by San Martín to govern Chile; a Chilean commander in San Martín's army
country that did not officially recognize losing its colonies after the Latin American Wars for Independence
is land inherited from one's father
in 1802, ____ of france sent troops to san domingue
cuba is _____ miles south of florida
______ ended in the late 1800s
the main religion of south america is ______
the spanish viewed the natives as lost souls who needed God and the Catholic _________
natives and soldiers
each spanish mission had ______ attached to them
Jesuit priest founded a college in ______
in ________ slaves were freed in haiti
in________ former slaves were made slaves again
in ________ the french government abolished slavery altogether
what does l'ouveture mean?
what did Bolivar die of?
he rang the church bell
what did hildago do to bring the people to church?
when did the pope give the king authority over all church matters and colonies?
the grant of the indians within a certain area given to a spaniard was known as ______.
who was arrested and sent to a prison in france?
before africans wre brought over this group of people were made to work the plantation and mines
what has produced a diverse population and culture?
what religion did the king of spain want to spread in Latin America?
When did the Cuban Missile Crisis happen?
North American Free Trade Agreement
What does NAFTA stand for?
U.S.A., Mexico, Canada
What countries are involved in NAFTA?
What language is a result of mixing African and European languages?
Who is the "Father" of Mexican independence?
Name given to a person of mixed Spanish and Native Indian lineage.
What is the Incan Language?
What is the official language of Bolivia?
For how many years were slaves taken to Latin America?
Know the group who supported rights and living conditions for Mexico's native people.
Bolivia, Columbia, Ecuador, Panama, Peru, and Venezuela
What countries did Bolivar liberate?
ideology (pl: ideologies)
a system of thought and belief
Concert of Europe
worked to support the political and social order that existed before Napoleon and the French Revolution.
wanted to return to the Old Order, to restore royal families, supported a social hierarchy, backed established churches, believed that talk of natural rights and constutional government would lead to chaos.
Liberalism & Nationalism
ignited a number of revolts against established rule.
wanted governments to be based on written constitutions & separation of powers; were against divine-right monarchies, the old aristocracy, and established churches; supported natural rights and republican governments.
spoke mostly for the middle class.
Colonial leaders who were born in Spain and Portugal and stood at the top level of the social order
These were the colonial-born white aristocrats, owned most the land and businesses, concidered 2nd class citizens
this is the bottom of the colonial social pyramid and the majority of Latin Americans.
a former slave who led the uprising in 1790 in Haiti
The Catholic priest that led the fight against the Spanish government in Mexico 1810
A creole from Venezuela, that led many colonies to independence, he believe in equality and saw liberty as "the only object worth a man's life."
Jose de San Martin
the man from Argentina who led Latin American armies over the Andes Mountains and into Chile.
This man was crowned Emperor of Brazil in 1822 after the country won independence from Portugal
this country is also known as (Saint Domingue) they had huge plantations of sugar, cotton, and coffee through out the mountains and valleys
this is where the earliest uprisings against Spanish rule occured
this is the country where Jose de San Martin came from
This is the country where San Martin joined Bernado O'Higgins and independence was won in 1818
This is the 2nd country San Martin helped gain independence in 1820
This country gained independence in 1808 without any blood shed.
This is the country where Simon Bolivar came from to devote his life to freedom for Latin Americans
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