Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED)
developed in 1998 by the U.S. Green Building Council and has changed the way thousands of buildings are designed. Uses less energy than a traditional design.
More expensive to build
one thing that makes people not want to build sustainably.
Coal(,) solar(, and) nuclear
clean energy sources
agriculture, wind, and water
energy sources a few hundred years ago
Electricity and hydrogen
allow us to concentrate large amounts of useful energy from a wide range of sources.
heat and pollutants
concentration of energy leads to concentration of waste including
concentration, availability, safety, and versatility
advantages of an energy source
hazard potential, environmental damage, and cost
disadvantages of an energy source
a versatile energy source that is easy to transport, however if it is spilled or ignited it can cause serious injury and environmental damage
extremely hazardous to handle. They are not versatile however they can cause less environmental damage.
world's main source of electricity
easily accessible, subject to seasonal and daily variability, expensive equipment that is environmentally harmful to create in order to harness it.
less than ____ percent of people live in highly developed countries and they use ____ percent of the commercial energy consumed worldwide
economic development, per capita energy consumption
____________ ______________ leads to a raise in _____ _______ ________ ___________
the benefits of energy, such as transportation, heating, cooking, and manufacturing, by developing alternate energy sources, technologies that require less energy, and energy conservation
using less energy to accomplish a given task, as, for example, with new technology (fuel efficient vehicles)
using less energy as for example, by reducing energy use and waste (carpooling)
a measure of the amount of available energy in a source that is transformed into useful work. what percentage of the energy is being used
the most common form of low value energy
the time necessary for an investment on a sustainable item to start paying off
a measure of energy use per dollar of GDP, it has decreased within the past decade
National Appliance Energy Conservation Act
sets national efficiency standards for in home appliances. These standards have decreased electricity use in the united states by 7%. Requires an appliance to have a label about its efficiency
zero net energy buildings
buildings that produce as much or more energy than they use. Also known as net metering.
demand side management
Electric power companies help electricity consumers save energy
rises in _____ ______ motivate companies to make more fuel efficient vehicles
the production of two useful forms of energy from the same fuel. Used by industries such as hospitals, factories, campuses, and other businesses to harness steam that is otherwise wasted
changing behaviors, practices, and thus shifting the services we expect from energy
government support (such as public financing or tax breaks) of business or institution to promote that group's activity. Keep energy prices artificially low because the government thinks they are beneficial to the economy
the flow of electrons in a wire, versatile
spins to produce electricity
turned by a turbine in which a bunch of wires and magnets spin, causing the electrons to more through the wires
electrons flowing through a wire in a single direction
electrons moving back and forth very quickly within the wire
an electrical current is applied to a bundle of wires around a magnet making the magnet spin
transmissions get loaded because a lot of people are using energy
two way communication between computers at the utility and customers' equipment and appliances.
high energy density, could substitute for gasoline, produced from any electrical source
advantages of Hydrogen
the process of using electricity to separate water into O2 and H2
volatile (be careful with it), converting water into H2 is inefficient
disadvantages of H2
an electrochemical cell similar to a battery. they produce power as long as they are supplied with fuel. When hydrogen and oxygen react, water forms and energy is produced as an electrical current.
transportation relies on _____ ________
Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles
vehicles that use fuel cells instead of gasoline
Flexible fuel vehicles
can potentially run on gasoline, ethanol, mixed fuel, or compressed natural gas
pumped hydroelectric storage
water is pumped up into the basin behind a dam, where it is them available at a later time to generate electricity.
compressed air energy storage
when energy is abundant, it can be used to compress air in large containers. When demands increase, the air can be released to create electricity
kinetic energy storage
an electric motor accelerates a flywheel to a high rotational speed. later the energy can be recaptured
superconducting magnetic energy storage
takes advantage of a phenomenon that occurs at extremely low temperatures. Materials called superconductors can store energy indefinitely
increase energy efficiency and conservation, secure future fossil fuel energy supplies, develop alternative energy sources, meet previous objectives without further damage to the environment.
4 objectives of an effective energy policy
Stayed the same
Energy use in the US, Germany, an Japan _____ in the passed decade.
As the human population grows, energy demand _____