Terms in this set (90)
Federal and State Courts
The dual court system of the United States consists of:
U.S. Constitution. Article III, Section 1
The U.S Federal Court system was created by the:
Which of the following is not a responsibility of a bailiff?
is a written order requiring an individual to appear in court.
An eyewitness, character witness, or other person called on to testify who is not considered an expert, is known as a _________ witness
All of the following are considered professionals in the courtroom work group expect the:
Quasi-legal advisor to the police.
The role of the defense counsel includes all of the following except:
Trial courts for the federal system.
The U.S. District Courts are the:
Which of the following is an example of an"outsider" or non-professional that plays an important role in the court room activities?
cases that are re-tried on appeal.
The term "trial de novo" is literally applied to
Courts that have the authority to review a decision made by a lower court are said to have:
The role of the__________ is to create a record of all the occurs during a trial.
In 2011, the U.S. Department of justice created an internal watchdog Office, called the Professional Misconduct Review Unit, to oversee the actions of the ____________ to deter misconduct.
Dispute resolution center
An informal hearing place designed to mediate interpersonal disputes without resorting to the more formal arrangements of a criminal trial court is called a:
Which of the following territories does NOT have a U.S. District Court?
An eyewitness or character witness called on to testify in court is known as a(n):
A victims' assistance program.
An organized program that offers service to victims of crime in the areas of crisis intervention and follow-up counseling and that helps victims secure their rights under the law is known as:
U.S. District Courts, U.S. Appeals Courts, U.S. Supreme Court.
The three parts of the Federal Court system consists of:
The decision by one of the courtroom professionals to charge, or not to charge, a person with an offense is called:
Any information have a tendency to clear a person of guilt or blame is known as:
The Herrera V. Collins decision severely limited access by stat defendants to federal courts, with the ruling that new evidence of innocence is no reason for a federal court to order a new state trial if constitutional grounds are lacking
The lawful authority of a court to review a decision made by a lower court is known as original jurisdiction.
The court of last resort is the court authorized by law to hear the final appeal on a matter.
The federal Court system is separated into three levels.
It is the responsibility of the clerk of court to keep order in the courtroom and to maintain physical custody of the jury.
Both lay witness and expert witness may express opinions or draw conclusions in their testimony
Exculpatory evidence is any information have a tendency to clear a person of guilt or blame.
Prosecutorial discretion is the decision-making power of prosecutors, based on the wide range of choices available to them, in the handling of criminal defendants.
State judges are only elected by the public to their posts.
The courtroom work group consists of judges, prosecutors, defense attorneys, and defendants.
Gideon V. Wainwright was a land mark case in 1963 that changed the laws regarding police searched of persons and homes.
Defendants, jurors ,and the press are considered outsiders or the nonprofessional courtroom participants
The victim Assistance Program is an organized program that offers services to victims of crime in the areas of crisis intervention and follow-up counseling and that helps victims secure their rights under the law.
A subpoena is a written order issued by a judicial officer or grand jury requiring an individual to appear in court to give testimony or bring material to be used as evidence
The territory, subject matter, or people over which a court or other justice agency may exercise lawful authority, as determined by statute or constitution, is called jurisdiction.
The Formal notice of charges is made at what stage of the court process?
The pretrial release of a criminal defendant on his or her written promise to appear in court as required.
Release on recognizance is defined as:
To determine the guilt or innocence of a defendant.
The primary purpose of the criminal trial is:
Challenges for knowledge.
Which of the following is NOT a type of juror challenge?
The adversarial system
The two-sided structure under which American criminal trial courts operate is known as:
Weapons, tire tracks, and fingerprints are example s of which type of evidence/
within 48 hours
McNabb V. U.S. formally established that a defendant being held in custody had a right to appear in court before a magistrate:
Prevent people who have not been convicted from suffering imprisonment unnecessarily.
Bail serves two purposes. One is to help ensure the reappearance of the accused at trial. The other is to:
Which of the following types of pleas is most similar to a guilty plea?
Which of the following refers to oral evidence offered by a sworn witness on the witness stand during a criminal trial?
An oral or written request made to a court at any time before, during or after court proceedings, asking the court to make a specified finding, decision, or order is also known as:
Allow the defendant to enter a plea.
A preliminary hearing is held to
Which is an example of a group designed to help improve the court system and the adjudication process?
Which is the decision of the jury in a jury trial or a judicial officer in a nonjury trial and decided the guilt or innocence of a defendant?
An oral summation of a case presented to judge, or to a judge and jury, by the prosecution or by the defense in a criminal trial is called the:
An example of a trial that gains national attention and becomes a media circus occurred with whose 2013 conviction for murder?
An appearance before a magistrate during which the legality of the defendants arrest is initially assessed and the defendant is informed of the changes on which he or she is being held is known as:
The release by executive decision of a prisoner form a federal or state correctional facility who has not served his or her full sentence and whose freedom is contingent on obeying specified rules of behavior is called a:
Which of the following are comprised of citizens to hear evidence presented by the prosecution and serve primarily as filter to eliminate cases for which there is not sufficient evidence for further processing?
Rules of evidence
Which term refers to court rules that govern the admissibility of evidence at criminal hearings and trial?
Dying declarations and spontaneous statement are considered exceptions to the hearsay rule.
Plea bargaining circumvents the trial process and dramatically reduced the time required of the resolution of criminal case
A defendant is usually present during a grand jury inquiry and the defense counsel cross-examines witness.
Challenge to the Array is tool used by judges to bar real evidence form the criminal trial.
Automatic video recording of the proceeding, using ceiling-mounted camera with voice-initiated switching, is a step in attempting to improve the adjudication process.
A "hung jury" is a jury that is deadlocked and cannot come to a unanimous decision.
An oral summation of a case presented to a judge, or to a judge and jury, by the prosecution or by the defense in a criminal trial is known as the closing argument.
The motion for a bill of particulars asks the court to order the prosecutor to provide detailed information about the witnesses the defendant will be facing in court.
Testimony is oral evidence offered by a sworn witness on the witness stand during a criminal trial
Release on recognizance is the pretrial release of a defendant who posts a minimum 10% of the cash necessary for release on bond.
Hearsay is something that is not based on the personal knowledge of a witness; rather, on the reputation of information.
Perjury is the intentional making of a false statement as a part of the testimony by a sworn witness in a judicial proceeding on a matter relevant to the case at hand.
The reasonable doubt standard is the standard of proof necessary for conviction in most, but all, criminal trials.
Built-in video playback facilities for out-of-court testimony is an example of ways of improving the adjudication process.
Instituting a professional jury system is an idea for improving the jury system in the United States.
Which of the following is NOT one of the goals of contemporary sentencing?
Which of the following is a model of criminal justice punishment that encourages rehabilitation through the use of general relatively unspecific sentences?
The examinations of a convicted offender's background prior jot sentencing that is generally conducted by probation or parole officials is called the:
Which on of the following is NOT a traditional sentencing option?
The opposite of mitigating circumstances in sentencing is :
Of federal crimes
In 2004 the Crime Victims' Rights Act established rights for victims:
The death penalty causes too many appeals and clogs the court system.
Which one of the following is NOT a rationale in opposing the death penalty?
What is the primary sentencing tool of the just deserts model?
There should be a direct relationship between the severity of the sanctions and the seriousness of the crime.
Proportionality means that:
Which term refers to the use of imprisonment or other means to reduce the likelihood that an offender will commit future offense?
Writ of habeas corpus
Which of the following directs the person detaining a prisoner to bring him or her before a judicial officer to determine the lawfulness of the imprisonment?
A sentence of 8 to 25 years is an example of a(n):
Which refers to the use of court-ordered community service, home detention, day reporting, drug treatment, psychological counseling, victim-offender programming, or intensive supervision in lieu of the other more traditional sanctions, such as imprisonment and fines?
Which amendment prohibits cruel and unusual punishment?
Usually a written document describing the suffering and trauma experienced by the crime victim used before sentencing
A victim impact statement is :
Alleyne V. U. S
Which 2013 U.S Supreme court case ruled that any fact that increases the mandatory minimum sentence is an "element" that must be submitted to the jury?
In 2013, which state became the third state to adopt racial impact legislation to study and prepare impact statements for proposed changes in sentencing, probation and parole?
A goal o criminal sentencing that seeks to prevent a particular offender from engaging in repeat criminality is known as:
Which country routinely executed more people than the rest of the world combined?
Which is a type of sentencing plan that allows leeway in the imposing of the sentence for a person convicted or a crime?