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Word history exam review pt.1

STUDY
PLAY
Sumerians
worshiped at ziggurats; Uruk; paid fines as punishment; invented cuneiform
Amorites
Semitic people; ruler was Hammurabi; known as the original Babylonians
Lydians
developed first money system that involved coins
Assyrians
Bullies of the ancient world; ruler was Asherbanipal; capital: Nineveh; warlike
Hanging Gardens of Babylon
built by Nebuchadnezzar for his wife Amytis of Media; known as a wonder of the ancient world; had its own irrigation systems; arranged of huge columns, passageways, etc
Draco
developed Draconian Rules; known as the first 'tyrant'; said that his laws were written in blood
Cleisthenes
fourth tyrant; ruler that established democracy
Marathon
Darius and the Persian army attempted to conquer this place; lost to Greece
Thermopolae
battle where Greece held off Persia with their improved Navy; Greece won
Hittites
began smelting iron ore; capital was Anatolia; had a strange appearance, but were fierce warriors
Archons
executive branch of Sparta
Ephors
executive branch of Athens
Chaldeans
new babylonians
Darius III
king of Persia that was murdered by his own men after the loss to Alexander the Great's army
Roxanna
daughter of Darius III; became wife of Alexander
Myron, Phidias, Praxiteles
Classic Greek Philosophers
hieroglyphics
arrangement of symbols used to form a language (priests)
demotic
language of the people
hieratic
languages of the priests and scribes
anthropologist
scientist who studies human remains
archaeologist
scientist who studies human remains
paleoclimatologist
weatherman of ancient history; studies climates of prehistoric times
Howard Carter
discovered King Tut's tomb
Lord Canarvon
Carter's benefactor
Sir Arthur Evans
archaeologist who discovered and name the Minoan civilization
Heinrich Schliemann
discovered Troy and Mycenae
Zorastor
persian priest who began Zorastorism (the differentiation between right and wrong)
Ahura Mazda
Zorator's good god
Ahriman
Zorastor's god of evil
cuneiform
first form of writing
symposium
the ancient form of a 'men's country club'; place of discussions of politics, trade, etc
pedagogue
male Athenian tutor
monotheism
belief in one god; ex: Judaism
polytheism
belief in more than one god; ex: Animism(pagan worship)
Pharaoh
Egyptian ruler; means 'great house'
Khufu
Egyptian pharaoh that build the Great Pyramid and was buried inside
Ramesses II
ruled for 67 years; known for building many statues and sculptures of himself
Ahmose I
drove out the Hyksos and began the 18th dynasty
King Tut
son of Ahkenaton; wished to continue his father's wishes of a monotheistic rule; cause of death is unknown
Ahkenaton
ruler of Egypt that changed the religion from polytheism to monotheism; the central god was aton(sun god); original name was amenhotep
Thutmose III
"Napoleon of Ancient Egypt"
Hatshepsut
first woman pharaoh
Nefertiti
wife of Ahkenaton; known as the most beautiful woman of her age
culture
way of life for a group of people
neanderthal
large, more primitive caveman
cro-magnon
people of the mezolithic period who overpowered the neanderthals; light skin, large forehead, stood erect, spoke out loud, had light pupils
artisan
skilled craftworker
carbon14
most common radiocarbon dating
memphis
was once White Walls; 1st capital of a united egypt
Menes
also known as Narmer; pharaoh who united upper and lower egypt; wore the double crown
mt. olympus
in the Pindus Mt. region; home region of the gods
K'hat
the living body; something that decays
sah
spirit of the body
ba
soul that was judged
ka
body double that dwelled in the tomb
sarcophagus
stone coffin used in burial
Kemet
ancient name for Egypt
shadoof
an Egyptian irrigation device
Peret
when the flooding decrease
ahket
flood season
shomu
dry season; time of harvest
Peret, Ahket, Shomu
3 seasons of egypt
Rosetta Stone
founded by Champollion; used to decode ancient Egyptian writing
Mesopotamia
Fertile Crescent; located between the Tigris-Euphrates river valley
Phoenicians
sea traders
Aramaeans
overland traders
Fertile Crescent
cradle of civilization
epic
larger than life poem; 4 components: narrator, had a hero/heroine, involved a quest, contained supernatural elements
cartouche
An oval shape inside which a pharaoh's name was inscribed in hieroglyphics to ward off evil