31 terms

APUSH Unit 7

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Manifest Destiny
the expansionist movement that was given its name 1845 by John L. O'Sullivan who was the editor of the influential United States Magazine and Democratic Review. It was stimulated by nationalism and an idealistic vision of human perfectibility. It was America's duty to extend liberty and democratic institutions across the continent. It was felt to be a divine American mission and was a feeling of racial superiority. They believed they had the natural right to move west and with them bring the blessings of self-government and Protestantism. It was during this time that they country really moved west, and this was the stimulus of expansion.
John L. O'Sullivan
the editor of the United States Magazine and Democratic Review who coined the name Manifest Destiny for the expansionist movement. He believed that it was the divine right of Americans to expand and became the expansionist movement.
Transcontinental Treaty
Spain ceded its claims of North American territory by this treaty in 1819 negotiated by John Quincy Adams, by which the United States acquired Florida and relinquished any nebulous claims to Texas under the Louisiana Purchase. Spain left its ties in North American and left the territorial disputes between Great Britain and the United States.
Oregon Trail/ Overland Trail
Americans were motivated by the spirit of Manifest Destin, and "Oregon Fever" seized thousands of western Americans hard hit by the economic depression, known as the Panic of 1837, which was triggered largely y an over-speculation in federal lands. Independence, Missouri was the starting point of the 2,000 mile Overland Trail, blazed by Jedediah Smith, Jim Bridger, and other mountain men. The route ran along the Missouri and Platte Rivers, across the Great Plains and through the South Pass of the Rocky Mountains. The trains either moved into Oregon or to California. Most Oregon pioneers were young farm families from the middle west, who completed the difficulty journey in five of six months. Most California gold-seekers were young unmarried men who expected the return to their families as wealthy men. Many pioneers died on the trail, 17 per mile, but fewer than 400 were killed by hostile Indians. The Indians tribes frequently developed a flourishing trade with the whites passing through their lands and occasionally served as scouts for the wagons trains. About 5,0 Americans had made the trek to Oregon by the mid-1840s. It was a huge part of westward expansion.
Empresarios
Americans who decided to emigrate to Texas who were encouraged by the Mexican government in order to create a military buffer between the marauding Indians and the southern provinces. The Americans were required to give up their citizenship, convert to Roman Catholicism, and become Mexican citizens. In return, they were granted huge tracts of land in the region bordering Louisiana. The first American empresario was Moses Austin, a former New Englander who had traded with the Spanish for decades. This idea was important because it led to the secession of Texas from Mexico and then becoming part of the Union, which brought about many issues that led to the Civil War.
Sam Houston
The revolutionists in Texas who wanted to leave Mexico and have statehood declared their independence on March 2 1836 and adopted a constitution legalizing slavery. David G Burnet was chosen as president of the new republic and Sam Houston, a former Tennessee congressman and governor who fought under Andrew Jackson during the war of 1812, was selected as Commander in Chief of the army. A city was named after him, and after the revolution, he was named the president of Texas.
The Alamo
The Mexican government responded swiftly to put down the Texas rebellion. Santa Anna raised a force of about 6,000 troops and marched north to besiege the nearly 200 rebels under the command of Colonel William B Travis at the Alamo, the abandoned mission at San Antonio. The final assault was made on March 6 and the entire garrison was annihilated, including the wounded. Among the dead were frontier legends Davy Crockett and Jim Bowie. A few weeks later at Goliad, Santa Anna ordered the slaughter of 300 Texas rebels after they surrendered. The revolution struck a sympathetic chord with America and led to the idea of the statehood of Texas.
John Slidell
appointed by Polk to be the minister of Mexico, and instructed him to offer up 30 million dollars to settle the disputed claims and purchase California and New Mexico. These lands eventually became part of the U.S. and brought about slavery disputes that led to the Civil War.
Zachary Taylor
future president of the United States. He was a general during the Mexican-American War. He crossed the Rio Grande and defeated numerically superior Mexican forces at the Battles of Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma. His men faced fierce house-to-house fighting against the Mexican army led by General Pedro de Ampudia, and he agreed to negotiate surrender, and allowed the Mexican troops to retreat with their arms. Polk countermanded the armistice and ordered Taylor to take a defensive position and planned an attack. Santa Anna tried to exploit Taylor's weakened position, but the Battle of Buena Vista in February 1847 was a stunning American victory. It was Taylor's last fight-he returned home a military hero destined for the White House. He was president responsible
Mr. Polk's War
the war with Mexico had mixed views throughout the Union. It was popular in the Mississippi Valley, but it was called Mr. Polk's War in the northeast. Whigs generally opposed the war, but party members in Congress voted to support the America soldiers and marines during the fighting. Abraham Lincoln believed Polk rushed the country into war over disputed territory between the Nueces and the Rio Grande. His views were not popular and he chose not to run for reelection as a Whig congressman.
Winfield Scott
commanding general of the United States army landed his men on the beaches near Vera Cruz and commenced a march that traces the route taken 300 years before by Cortes. Scott brushed aside Santa Anna's army at Cerro Gordo, a battle in which Captains Robert E Lee and George B McClellan distinguished themselves. Santa Anna hastily recruited a Mexican army of about 20,000 troops but many of them were ill-trained and equipped. General Scott's army of nearly 14,000 men overwhelmed the Mexican forces. The fortified hill or Chaputlepec was stormed despite the desperate resistance of the defenders. Mexico City fell on September 14, as American soldiers and marines entered the "halls of Montezuma". It was the decisive campaign of the war that led to the annexation of Texas and ceded New Mexico and California to the United States.
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Nicholas P Trist was sent by Polk to negotiate a peace treaty with the Mexican government. It was signed on February 2, 1848 at Guadalupe Hidalgo. Mexico acknowledged the annexation of Texas (with Rio Grande as its border) and ceded New Mexico and California to the United States. In return, the United States paid 15,000,000 for the Mexican Cession and assumed up 3,250,000 of the disputed claims. This treaty brought about many sectional disputes that led to the Civil War.
Mexican Cession
the name of the area of California, New Mexico, Texas, all areas that were part of Mexico before the War that were taken by the United States after the war. The taking of these regions was fueled by the ideals of Manifest Destiny and brought about problems that brought about the Civil war. It became a political battleground between the North and the South.
Wilmot Proviso
the issue of the Mexican Cession that created a battleground between the North and the South was raised by David Wilmot, a Democratic congressman form Pennsylvania. Wilmot proposed that slavery be prohibited in any territory acquired from Mexico. The Wilmot Proviso passed the House frequently in the next several years, but it was always defeated in the Senate . It never became law, but represented the extreme Northern position regarding the extension of slavery.
Popular Sovereignty
there were many different idea of compromise as to whether slavery was legal in the Mexican Cession. Calhoun argued that Congress had no right to prohibit slavery. Two compromise proposals were also advanced prior to the election of 1848. James Buchanan urged that the Missouri Compromise line of 36 30 be extended to the pacific. President Polk agreed, but it was becoming more difficult for politicians to concede any territory in the fight over slavery. The other compromise proposal known as popular sovereignty was introduced December 1847 by Lewis Cass. Cass adroitly proposed that the explosive slavery question be removed from the halls of Congress by letting the people of the territories decide the matter. Popular sovereignty would eventually not work when the gold rush began.
Forty Niners
in January 1848, gold was discovered on property in Sierra Nevada foothills of northern California. It was supposed to be secret, but the word leaked shortly after the Treaty of Guadalupe- Hidalgo. An estimated 100,000 forty-niners from around the globe flocked to the gold fields in 1849. The population of California exploded, and the issue of slavery was again brought up. Politicians were debated as to whether California should be admitted as a free or slave state.
Gabriel Prosser
The first armed rebellion was organized by this man and 50 other slaves living near Richmond, VA. Hundreds of slaves heard about the plan, and 2 of them told the white authorities. Governor James Monroe called out the militia and Prosser and 25 of his followers were executed and their owners received compensation. Black resistance to enslavement played an important role in fashioning a compromise to the sectional controversy of 1850.
Denmark Vesay
another example of armed rebellion towards enslavement was by this man, a literate carpenter who purchased his freedom from lottery winnings, spent five years devising an elaborate scheme to seize control of Charleston, South Carolina. Vesay was betrayed like Prosser by slaves and hanged along with 35 fellow conspirators in the summer of 1822. These uprising brought about many questions about slavery, but did not have a significant effect.
Nat Turner
the only significant slave insurrection during the antebellum period was Nat Turner's Rebellion. Turner was a literate slave who believed that hit was his divine mission to slay my enemies with their own weapons. In 1831, he led about 30 slaves on a rampage through tidewater Virginia, killing about 60 men, woman, and children. As an effect, a slaughter of blacks took place before the uprising was put down. Turner eluded his pursuers for 2 months before being captured, tried, and then executed. The Southern States as a result enforced laws prohibiting the education of slaves and increased surveillance of free African Americans. Northern black sailors were sometimes put in jail while in southern ports, and throughout the country side there were slave patrols that prevented blacks from meeting without whites present and to catch runaway slaves.
Underground Railroad
It has been exaggerated over the years, but it was a loosely organized group of abolitionist "conductors" who operated safehouse "stations" in northern states and transported their passengers to freedom in Canada, beyond the reach of slave catchers. Harriet Tubman was dubbed the Moses of her people, and was the most famous Underground Railroad conductor. She escaped Maryland in 1849 and risked her freedom by returning from Canada 19 times to rescue some 300 slaves. She also served as a Union spy during the Civil War. This organization saved many slaves and also brought the morality of slavery into question.
Personal Liberty Laws
designed to protect the rights of alleged fugitive slaves by prohibiting state officials from assisting in their capture. Southerners complained that these laws made it impossible to return their slaves, and demanded a more stringent act. Adding more fuel to the explosive issue, some Northerners called Congress to abolish slavery in the District of Columbia and ban it from the Mexican Cession. A political compromise was needed.
Compromise of 1850
The compromise regarding the slavery issue that stated that California was admitted as a free state, Utah and New Mexico were created as territories, Texas was compensated with 10 million dollars for accepting its present day borders, with the slave trade abolished in the District of Columbia, and a more stringent fugitive slave law was enacted. It was generally accepted among Americans, with the exception of political extremes in both the north and the south. The compromise tried to avoid war, but it only delayed it.
Fugitive Slave Act
the act that said that runaways were not permitted a jury trail or allowed to testify at their hearing, and the commissioners who decided the cases were paid ten dollars if they returned accused fugitives to slavery but only five dollars if they released them. All good citizens were commanded to aid and assist in the prompt execution of this law. Anyone who did not obey was liable to a maximum fine of 1,000 dollars and a six month term of imprisonment. This act was galling to many Northerners. Ralph Waldo Emerson reflected the feelings of many Northerners when he wrote, "This filthy enactment was made in the 19th century by people who could read and write." and said that no one could obey the act without loss of "self-respect". The most spectacular rescuers took place in the year following the passage of the Act, and it brought about more controversy over the slave issue.
Uncle Tom's Cabin
it was the most significant response to the Fugitive Slave Act. It was written by Harriet Beecher Stowe. It was originally a series that ran for a abolitionist newspaper, but it became a book in 1852 and was a huge success. Many Union soldiers received their first lessons of slavery from the pages of the book. The novel released pent-up feelings of guilt and revulsion toward slavery among Northerners who previously had not given much thought to the sectional controversy, and it became a moral crusade. It had a huge impact because of its enchanting characters that were very realistic. The plot captured the imagination of readers and moved many to tears. Stowe championed domestic and family values and graphically depicted how slavery corrupted the Christian virtues of both whites and blacks. She later said that God wrote Uncle Tom's Cabin, and she influenced the Second Great Awakening. Her novel was a propaganda victory for the anti-slavery cause.
Aunt Phyllis's Cabin
Southern writers attempted futilely to portray slavery as being a benign institution. This book described Christian masters who neither whipped their slaves nor broke up their families. Defenders of slavery contended that the slaves themselves were more satisfied with their lot than the desperate wage slaves of the northern factories. These efforts did little to change the Northern sentiments toward slavery. Uncle Tom's Cabin inflamed public opinion in both the north and the south during the 1850s. For many Americans, Stowe imbued the slavery issue with an emotional fervor that hastened the Civil War.
Kansas Nebraska Act
Senator Stephen Douglas wanted to create a railroad through Chicago and the Nebraska Territory. One problem he faced in doing this was the fact that this region was Indian Territory. However, he wanted to revoke earlier land promises and force the Indians to move. He then developed a political scheme to wine the support of Southerners. He introduced this act, which split the territory into two sections, slave state Kansas and free state Nebraska. He believed in popular sovereignty and pushed to led the residents of each territory decide whether their state would permit slavery. He called for the repeal of the MO compromise of 1820 that prohibited slavery because both Nebraska and Kansas were above the line. He created this in order to entice the Southerners to support his plan, but it also angered his fellow Northerners. The decision to reopen the slavery issue to allow more slave states re-ignited decades old conflict between the North and the South and set the foundation for the coming Civil War.
Beecher's Bible's
Kansas was the most likely to become a slave state, but since their was popular sovereignty, both abolitionists and pro slavery people set settlers to establish a majority. One organization, the New England Emigrant Aid Company, sent a lot of people to Kansas, and they were armed with pioneers with rifles named Beecher's Bible after the Reverend Beecher who raised money to purchase the weapons. They traveled the new territory singing a song by a Quaker poet. This caused more problems to arise.
Bleeding Kansas
President pierce fanned the flames of controversy by denouncing the free state government. The crises reached a boiling point when a mob of proslavery people raided the free soil town of Lawrence and looted stores, burned building, and destroyed the town's printing press. The violent attacks were the first of many to call the conflict "bleeding Kansas" by journalists. The controversy in Kansas reflected the growing crises that was in the entire nation.
Dred Scott v Sanford
After all the events that have occurred that have pushed the nation to war, this case took the nation one step closer. Dred Scott was a Missouri slave who frequently traveled with his owner through Illinois and Wisconsin Territory. He sued his owner's widow for his freedom because he had residence in free state Illinois, where slavery was outlawed and made him a free man. Justice Roger Taney ruled that black people were not citizen of the United States, and since he was not a citizen, he could not sue for liberty. They also said that even if he was a citizen, his residence in Wisconsin Territory did not qualify him to be free. Taney argued that the MO compromise was unconstitutional because it deprived people of "property". In summary, the ruling said that since slave owners could take their "property" anywhere, Congress could not ban slavery from territories. The decision shocked blacks, abolitionists, and popular sovereignty supporters who had fought the expansion of slavery. Republicans said that the Court's ruling was an opinion and not enforceable. Southerners were outraged at the North's defiance and it reopened their secession discussions. These actions brought the country closer to war.
Freeport Doctrine
Abraham Lincoln and Stephan Douglas had many debates while running from the senate position in Illinois. The most famous took place in Freeport, Illinois. Lincoln referred to the Dred Scott case when he asked if the residents of a territory could exclude slavery before the territory became a state. Lincoln believed slavery to be a moral issue, and hoped to trap Douglas and force him to comment on popular sovereignty and slavery. If he supported popular sovereignty, he would contradict the Court's ruling. Douglas replied that laws were necessary to protect slavery, and if no laws existed, no slaves would be there. He concluded that if the residents did nothing, slavery would essentially be excluded from the territory. He effectively answered the questions without offending any supporter, and his answer became known as the Freeport Doctrine. His doctrine would resurface and cost him the Democratic nomination for presidency, however, when many southerner focused on the senator's statement that the SC' Dred Scott decision could be circumvented. They refused to support a candidate who did not completely back their views on slavery.
John Brown
He was an abolitionist who believed that he was appointed by God to rid the nation of slavery. His house was a station for the Underground Railroad, and he took part in many violent raids of Kansas, Missouri, and Virginia. When a proslavery constitution was in effect in Kansas, Brown formulated a plan to start a slave rebellion and form a free state for blacks. The heart of the plan involved attacking the federal arsenal of Harpers Ferry, Virginia. He got many volunteers and was financially backed by some Northerners. On a fall night, he led his gang to Harpers Ferry, overpowered the watchmen, and took Lewis Washington as a hostage. He figured it would be soon when the slaves and sympathetic whites arrived at the armory to take weapons and fight, but the slaves never showed up. When Brown's men shot a railroad employee, the townspeople heard and told local militiamen and the U.S. Marines commanded by Robert E Lee. Buchanan then told more artillery to the place. Brown and four of his men were captured. He was charged with murder, conspiracy, and treason, but he refused the insanity plea because he wanted to become a martyr in death. His actions caused more uprising because many Democrats blamed the incidents on the teachings of the Republican Party, who were mainly northerners. The Civil War seemed inevitable.