CHEM ch 5
Terms in this set (81)
What is the nuclear symbol for a radioactive isotope of copper with a mass number of 60?
The nuclear symbol of helium, 4/2 He, is also the symbol for designating a(n)
The symbol 0/-1 e is a symbol used for a(n)
The symbol 0/+1 e is a symbol used for a(n)
A positron is a particle emitted from the nucleus that has the same mass as a(n)
electron but has a positive charge
Which of the following types of radiation has the highest energy?
The damaging effects of radiation on the body are a result of
the formation of unstable ions or radicals
Which of the following is suitable as a minimum shielding for beta particles?
For 85/38 Sr, there are
38 protons and 47 neutrons
Which is NOT a way to minimize your exposure to radiation?
staying a longer time
The process in which a nucleus spontaneously breaks down by emitting radiation is known as
The nuclear reaction shown below is an example of what type of process? 224/90 Th → 220/88 Rn + 4/2 He
Gamma rays require the heaviest shielding of all the common types of nuclear radiation because gamma rays have the
If absorbed internally, alpha particle emitters are the most damaging because alpha particles
have the greatest mass
A nuclear equation is balanced when
the sum of the mass numbers and the sum of the atomic numbers of the particles and atoms are the same on both sides of the equation
When a positron is emitted from the nucleus of an atom, the nuclear mass
remains the same
When an alpha particle is emitted from the nucleus of an atom, the nuclear mass
decreases by four units
When a gamma ray is emitted from the nucleus of an atom, the nuclear mass
remains the same
In the nuclear equation of a beta emitter,
the new nucleus contains 1 more proton
The product from the alpha decay of 235/92 U is
Nitrogen-17 is a beta emitter. What is the isotope produced in the radioactive decay?
The nuclear reaction 126/50 Sn → 126/51 Sb + ? is an example of
What is the radioactive particle released in the following nuclear equation? 90/38 Sr → 90/39 Y + ?
What is the radioactive particle released in the following nuclear equation? 159/74 W → 155/72 Hf + ?
What is missing in the nuclear reaction shown below? 10/5 B + 4/2 He → 13/7 N + _____
What is missing in the nuclear reaction shown below? 10/5 B + 4/2 He → _____ + 1/0 n
What is missing in the nuclear reaction shown below? 66/30 Zn + 1/1 p → _____
What is the radiation particle used in the bombardment of nitrogen-14? 14/7 N + ? → 14/6 C + 1/1 H
When aluminum-27 is bombarded with a neutron, a gamma ray is emitted. What radioactive isotope is produced?
Radium-226 decays by alpha emission to
Iodine-131 decays by beta emission to
A sample of cerium-141 for a diagnostic test was dissolved in saline solution to an activity of 4.5 millicuries/mL. If the patient undergoing the test needs a dose of 10. millicuries, how much of the solution should be injected into the patient?
The unit used to measure the amount of radiation absorbed by a gram of material is called then
A patient receives 4.2 × 103 mrads of iodine-131, which emits β-particles. If the factor that adjusts for biological damage is 1 for β-particles, how many rems did the patient receive?
A patient receives 10 mrads of gamma radiation. If the factor that adjusts for biological damage for for gamma radiation is 1, how many mrems did the patient receive?
Gamma rays may be detected using
all of the above devices: Geiger counter, film badge, X-ray film
A sample of technetium-99m has an activity of 1.5 Ci. How many disintegrations occur in the technetium-99m sample in 5.0 sec?
2.8 × 10 to the 11th
Why is it important that radioisotopes used in diagnostic tests have short half-lives?
This minimizes the harmful side effects of the radiation
A person begins to suffer radiation sickness at an exposure level of
The recommended dosage of I-131 for a test is 4.2 microcuries per kg of body weight. How many millicuries should be given to a 55 kg patient? (1 mCi = 1000 μCi)
One symptom of mild radiation sickness is
a lowered white cell count
Sodium-24 has a half-life of 15 hours. How many hours is three half-lives?
The half-life of a radioisotope is
the time it takes for one-half of the sample to decay
Iodine-123, which is used for diagnostic imaging in the thyroid, has a half-life of 13 hours. If 50.0 mg of I-123 were prepared at 8:00 A.M. on Monday, how many mg remain at 10:00 A.M. on the following day?
A wooden object from a prehistoric site has a carbon-14 activity of 10 counts per minute (cpm) compared to 40 cpm for new wood. If carbon-14 has a half-life of 5730 years, what is the age of the wood?
Krypton-79 has a half-life of 35 hours. How many half-lives have passed after 105 hours?
The half-life of bromine-74 is 25 min. How much of a 4.0 mg sample is still active after 75 min?
An imaging technique in which a computer monitors the degree of absorption of X-ray beams is known as
computerized tomography (CT)
An imaging technique that detects the energy emitted by hydrogen atoms in a magnetic field is known as
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
The most widely used medical isotope in nuclear medicine is
The dosage of technetium-99m for myocardial imaging is 280 μCi/kg of body weight. How many mCi should be given to a patient weighing 65 kg? (1 mCi = 1000 μCi)
A patient receives 3.0 mL of a solution containing technetium-99m for a breast image. If the activity of the technetium-99m is 9.5 mCi/mL, what is the dose received by the patient?
When an atom of uranium-235 is bombarded with neutrons, it splits into smaller nuclei and produces a great amount of energy. This nuclear process is called
In the Sun, nuclei of hydrogen combine to form a larger nucleus and release a great amount of energy. The process is known as
The production of nitrogen-13 and a neutron from boron-10 by bombardment with a helium-4 nucleus is an example of radioactive decay.
The correct symbol for hydrogen-3 is He.
An alpha particle is emitted when Am-241 decays to Np-237.
A beta particle is emmited when Co-60 decays to Fe-60.
Exposure to radiation is unavoidable because some radioactive elements occur naturally.
One symptom of radiation sickness is an increased production of red blood cells.
Irradiation of food for sterilization is usually carried out using gamma irradiation.
Irradiated food contains small amounts of added radioactive isotopes.
If the half-life of hydrogen-3 is 11.8 years, after two half-lives the radioactivity of a sample will be reduced to one-half of the original amount.
One mCi of a radioactive substance emits more radiation than one μCi of the same substance.
Medical radioisotopes used for diagnostic purposes typically have short half-lives.
One type of radiation that is not usually used for medical procedures is the cosmic ray.
Nuclear fission as used in nuclear power plants produces radioactive waste with long half-lives.
Nuclear fusion does not occur naturally.
A large nucleus is split into smaller nuclei.
Very high temperatures must be achieved to initiate the reaction.
This nuclear process provides the energy of the Sun.
This process produces radioactive by-products.
Large amounts of energy are released.
both fission and fusion
Two small nuclei combine to form a larger nucleus.