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Art Test #1
Terms in this set (37)
1.1 What do we mean by the terms "Paleolithic" and "Neolithic" art? Who is famous for having said "All art is basically paleolithic or neolithic: the urge to smear soot and grease on cave walls or pile stone on stone."?
-Paleolithic: homemade paints made from clays and animal liquid, when first discovered scholars believed that the art was made with meaning, kind of like a form of communication with spirit worlds
-Neolithic: creation of art for mainly for aesthetics, not practical, fire used to harden clay
-contemporary British sculptor Anthony Caro
1.2 Be familiar with the "Roles of the Artist" outlined in Chapter One, and know which works of art were used to demonstrate each of these "roles".
-create places for some human purpose ex:
"Vietnam veteran memorial" for contemplation and remembrance
-create extraordinary versions of ordinary objects ex: "kente cloth from ghana" rich costly and elaborate which distinguishsed the wearer as special
-record and commemorate ex: "jahangir receives a cup from khusrau" commemorates a moment of reconciliation after a falling out between a father and son, gives us a glimpse of how they wanted to be remembered
-tangible form to the unknown ex: "shiva ntaraja" demonstrates the destruction and rebirth of the world
-tangible form to feelings and ideas ex: "the starry night" intrigued with the idea that people go to the stars after death
-refresh our vision and help us see the world in new ways
1.3 What were some of the reasons that Maya Lin designed the Vietnam War memorial the way that she did? What did she intend for it to symbolize? We watched an Art:21 documentary about her, too. What was some of her more recent work like?
-she had an impulse to cut into the earth, opening it up like a wound, initial violence and pain that wold take time to heal, the grass would grow back but the cut remains,
-her more recent work was architectural based with memorials, libraries, and outdoor works
1.4 What is a vanitas image, and who were the artists responsible for the two vanitas images we observed in class?
-latin for vanity, alludes to biblical book of ecclesiastes, a meditation on fleeting nature of earthly life and happiness which in the end is vanity
-"wheel of fortune" by audrey flack, "every touch" by jim hodges
2.1 How does your book discuss the relationship between the artist and their audience? Speaking generally, what differentiated the way that Claude Monet, Andrea del Verrocchio, and James Hampton associated with an audience?
-claude monet: clear colors, no need to explain the artwork, very easy to imagine ourselves in the painting itself
-andrea del vercocchio: created what the audience wanted not what he wanted, wanted his art to be displayed in public not enshrined in museums
-james hampton: only audience he sought was himself, didn't intend for the artwork to be displayed, just for him kind of like a spiritual vision
2.2 What is the difference between looking at art with the expectation that it be beautiful, and with the intention of contemplating it aesthetically? How does a painting such as Francisco de Goya's Saturn Devouring One of His Children, for instance, better fulfill the intention to contemplate something aesthetically?
-beauty: formal qualities such as symmetry, simple geometric shapes, pure colors
-aesthetics is the branch of philosophy that studies art, nature and beauty, can produce pleasure
-shuts down any possibility for aesthetic distance, grabs us by the throats and shows pure horror, leaves notions of pleasure and beauty far behind
2.3 With regards to the continuum of naturalism vs. abstract imagery, how did Pablo Picasso's art change throughout his career? What were some of the reasons for this?
-surrounded by people who knew how to nurture his art, after graduation from art school moved from barcelona to paris, experimented style after style before really developing cubism
-development of photography he asked why do we still need to replicate things when we can create new things
2.4 What were the terms applied to Wassily Kandinsky's paintings such as Swinging? What related field did Kandinsky relate his art to?
-nonrepresentational or nonobjective
-drew comparison between nonobjective painting and music
2.5 How do the two paintings of a music lesson by Henri Matisse provide us with a classic example of the way that form can affect the content or meaning of a work?
-piano lesson was abstract, minimal color and detail, boy is concentrating so hard it seems like the whole world vanishing around him, is about the discipline of music, its solitary and intellectual side
-music lesson is set in the realm of family togetherness, he is no longer alone, there is tons of color and detail, is about the pleasure of music, its sensual and social side
2.6 What is iconography? What are some of the key iconographical elements in the painting The Arnolfini Wedding Portrait?
-literally describing images, describing and interpreting subject matter
-seemingly pregnant belly=fertility
-huge ass candles=wealth
-no shoes on=sacred ground
2.7 What type of art was Joseph Beuys best known for (as in How to Explain Pictures to a Dead Hare)? What elements of Joseph Beuys' biography influenced the materials and symbolism of his mature artworks?
-member of the hitler youth, war aircraft radio guy,
3.1 What are the themes of art presented in this chapter? Be able to match an image from the chapter with the theme it most readily suggests.
-the sacred realm: madonna enthroned pic of Mary mother of Christ with her son
-politics and social order: great pyramids of giza kings=link between divine and earthly realm
-stories and histories: st.francis giving his mantle to poor man=wealthy man giving away some stuff to poor guy
3.2 What does the term iconoclasm mean? When has institutionalized iconoclasm taken place in Western culture? What occurred with the Bamiyan Buddhas, and when?
-protestants ransacked churches, smashing glass windows, breaking statues, whitewashing
-the destroying of the large buddha carving in afghanistan because the taliban issued that all states in the country be destroyed
3.3 What events are narrated in Eugene Delacroix's Liberty Leading the People, or in Pablo Picasso's Guernica? How does each of these paintings visually communicate to us about the nature of historical events?
-rallying the french people who surge forward with brandishing pistols while holding the french flag
-depiction of the spanish civil war when a coalition of conservative trasitition and fascist forces were trying to topple the government of the fledgling spanish republic
3.4 What type of artwork did Robert Rauschenberg become famous for? What images does he juxtapose in the work Windward, and how do they associate with the title?
-photos silkscreened onto huge canvases
-statue of liberty, bald eagle on rainbow, sistine chapel, sinks oranges
-all images give the optimistic feeling of raising up hence the eagle, lady holding torch high, sun kissed oranges, height of sistine chapel
3.5 What major catastrophic event occurred in Frida Kahlo's early life? How did she begin painting?
-street car accident that leaves her unable to function her body at 100% and bear children
-during treatment to kind affirm that she was still existing, to express her feelings/experiences as a mexican woman
3.6 How does Vermeer's Woman with a Balance exemplify the theme of the interior life? What are some of the iconographical details of this work that give it its particular meaning?
-working inside with no windows open,
-stran of pearls in the table kind of represent her vanity and temptations of earthly treasures,
-problem of self knowledge, life after death,
3.7 How does Jeff Wall's photograph A Sudden Gust of Wind pay homage to an earlier artist and image?
-resembles the image by hokusai, scene is in nondescript place, land is flat, absence of mountain
3.8 With what group of artists do we place Robert Smithson and his Spiral Jetty?
4.1 What is the difference between a contour line and an outline?
4.2 What historical event is depicted in Theodore Géricault's Raft of the Medusa?
-the wreck of french govt, ship medusa off north africa, only a few survives
4.3 How did the artist Raphael employ "implied shape" to enhance the composition of The Madonna of the Meadows?
-placement of mary, john the baptist and Jesus kind of form a triangle
-line that would connect mary's head and hew exposed foot makes a straight line
4.4 Read the sections on Light and Color very carefully.
-light: black and white=values
-color: tint = light
4.5 What artwork inspired the color and composition of James Whistler's Nocturne in Blue and Gold? What mood does this picture establish in comparison with Edvard Munch's The Scream?
-calm mind, franz marc
-calm, simple, stable vertical/horizontal lines
-tranquility of boatman
4.6 What experience inspired Alberto Giacometti's The Nose? How is space an important component of this work?
-dying friend in hospital
-friends face looked horrible and captured moment of death in the sculpture
4.7 Where did the artist Do-ho Suh come from? What are some of the themes he explores in his art, based on what we learned from class discussion and from the Art:21 interview we watched in class?
-expresses his memories of a place and what it looks life in real life
4.8 What are the components of linear perspective? When, historically, did artists begin using linear perspective again after the Classical period?
-form seems to diminish in size as they receded from us
-parallele lines receding into the distance seem to converge until they meet at point on horizon where the disappear
4.9 What group of painters did Albert Bierstadt belong to? When/ why did he paint his sublime landscapes of the American west?
-went with us army engineers on plane to make maps of overland route,
4.10 How does Jennifer Steinkamp compose the colorful projections she uses in works such as Dervish?
-uses technology to create the moving trees and then projects them onto screen
5.1 How do the principles of design differ from the visual elements?
-principles of design refer to the unity/variety, balance, emphasis/subordination, proportion/scale and rhythm
5.2 How are the principles of unity and variety expressed in a work such as Jackson Pollock's Shimmering Substances?
-short lashing strokes unify visual texture
-small patches of color
5.3 What is the subject of Gustav Klimt's Death and Life, or, moreover, what is its iconography? How does the artist achieve balance in this work?
-asymmetrical balance of opposition between life
-light colored human on right side
-dark colored death on left
-both halves are linked by the gaze of death and the woman he charmed
5.4 Be familiar with the biography of Georgia O'Keefe, and with the geographical areas/ subject matter that appeared most often in her work.
-born in wisconsin, went to artoschool at art institute of chicago, teacher
5.5 What were the place and era that Edouard Manet recorded in A Bar at the Folies-Bergére? What are some of the mysteries surrounding the imagery of this painting? What are some of the possible meanings of this work that we discussed in class? How does this painting relate to the study of psychoanalysis?
-mirror doesn't show exactly what we see
-talks about the mirror stage of human development, to be pretty for the customers, kind of like an object herself
5.6 How does Goya use color to produce effects of emphasis and subordination in the painting Executions on the Third of May?
-yellow, red and white demand out attention by creating a dramatic focal area agains the background tones of black and brown, lanterns cast harsh light
5.7 What is the difference between scale and proportion? How did René Magritte manipulate these two elements in the painting Delusions of Grandeur II? How does scale figure into the style of much Egyptian art?
-scale: size in relation to a standard or normal size
-proportion: size relationships between parts a whole
-made the clouds cubes, put candle next to bodies to give us a feel of how big or small they are
-hierarchial scale: scale to indicate relative importance
5.8 What is the golden mean, and how can one apply it in geometry, or even in portraying the human body? What is the iconography of Leonardo da Vinci's Vitruvian man? Why is this drawing entitled "Vitruvian Man"?
-used to design structures and buildings
-stands in a square that is exactly his height, circle centered at the belly button
-renaissance notion that the perfect human proportions=divine order
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