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detect photons, filled with photopigments, they change their conformation when struk by a photon.

types of photoreceptors

rods, cones


detect intensity, black and white vision. only function in dim light.


detect wave lengths, color vision, only function in bright light.


photon strikes rhodopsin, breaks down into opsin and retinal. bleaching

rods photopigment

contain photopigment called rhodopsin

rhodopsin subunits

retinal, opsin


bleaching of rhodopsin causes the membrane potential of the rod to change


rod releases less nt


bipolar neuron detects the drop in nt from rod. change in membrane potential of the bipolar neuron. change in amount of nt bipolar neuron releases


ganglionic neuron detects the change of nt from bipolar. change in ap frequency on axon. optic nerve.


color receptors. detect different wavelengths of light.

types of cones

blue, green, red. sensitivities overlap patterns of ap on cones detect specific colors.

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