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POL202 test 1
Terms in this set (53)
Strictly speaking, what is the difference between a nation and a state?
Nation: people who share a common language, race,and history
State: an entity endowed with legal personality, a sovereign nation
What are the criteria for statehood under the Montevideo Convention?
A state must have: 1. A permanent population 2. Defined territory 3. A government 4. Capacity to enter into relations with other states
What is the most important requirement for achieving statehood under the constitutive theory?
Must be recognized by existing states or great powers.
What is meant by anarchy in international relations?
No international or global governing authority. They act only on their own best interest.
Explain the lasting significance of the Peace of Westphalia.
Stabilized borders in Europe. Beginning of modern system of states, established sovereignty of states. European state system expanded to globe.
What is meant by the term "mercantilism"?
The use of military power to enrich imperial governments
What is sovereignty? Why is it important for understanding international relations?
Sovereignty means there is no higher political or legal governing than the state. States maintain the control of their borders. When sovereignty mixes with other state such as anarchy it makes international politics different than any other kind of politics. Without understanding the concept of sovereignty, it would be possible to have a lack of understanding with another nation that would lead to unwanted conflict.
What is meant by Pax Britannica? Approximately when did it occur?
British hegemony was a stabilizing force by providing balance to rising powers on continental Europe. Countries were more interested in trade and economic growth. 1815-1914. Pax Britannica is latin for "British Peace".
Who were the principal antagonists in the Cold War? Approximately when did it occur?
U.S. & Soviet Union. 1945-1990.
Identify the two principal Cold War alliances.
NATO & Warsaw Pact
How did the role of the UN differ in the Persian Gulf conflict of 1990-91 and the invasion of Iraq in 2003?
In 1990-91 the UN agreed that Iraq invading Kuwait was unacceptable and passed resolutions to address the situation. Eventually authorized "all necessary means" in getting Iraq's army to leave Kuwait. Coalition of forces fought back Iraqi army. In 2003 UN was divided about Iraq invasion, France used their veto on the Security Council. *Amount of members increased -newly independent nations attempted to reform international economy and perceived inequalities
What is a dominant strategy in game theory? What is the dominant strategy in the Prisoner's dilemma?
Dominant strategy in game theory is when one side makes same choice regardless of what the opponent does. Dominant strategy for prisoner's dilemma is for both to defect.
What is meant by equilibrium in game theory?
An outcome that arises from each side playing best response strategies.
--stable because actors have no incentive to alter their choices; neither side can do better by changing their choice
What do we mean by institution?
A set of rules (known and shared by the community) that structure interactions in specific ways.
What is the difference between cooperative interactions and bargaining interactions?
Cooperative interaction is when two or more actors adopt policies that make at least one actor better off than it would be otherwise.
Bargaining interaction is when actors must choose outcomes that make one better off at the other expense.
Identify and explain the two key qualities of public goods?
Nonexcludable: is not possible to exclude people from using the good, nonrival in consumption: more than one individual can consume the same good at the same time; one person's use of the good does not prohibit another's use of the same good. (Examples -- national defense, clean air/water, environment) Public goods are socially desirable products that are (a) Nonexcludable and (b) Nonrival in consumption.
What is the collective action problem?
Obstacles to cooperation that occur when actors have incentives to collaborate but each acts in anticipation that others will pay the costs of cooperation.
How does linkage work to facilitate cooperation?
The cooperation policy of "Give me this and I will help be more lenient in this" Linkage ties cooperation on one policy dimension to cooperation on other dimensions. Allows victims to retaliate by withholding cooperation on other issues.
How does iteration work to facilitate cooperation?
Actors can prevent one another from cheating/defecting by threatening to withhold cooperation in the future.
Explain the meaning of power?
Ability to get another actor to do something that they would not otherwise do; the ability to get the other side to make concessions and to avoid having to make concessions oneself.
What is interstate war?
A war in which the main participants are states.
What is the principal insight of the bargaining theory of war?
In theory, there are bargains that both states would prefer to war - a range of deals always exist.
What is the bargaining range?
The bargaining range is fixed and reaches its max at which one of the actors is willing to go to war rather than bargain more.
Draw a simple bargaining model identifying ideal points for each actor, the likely war outcome and the bargaining range.
What is the difference between compellence and deterrence?
Compellence is an effort to change the status quo through the threat of force; "Give me y, or else". Deterrence is an effort to preserve the status quo through the threat of force; "Don't do x, or else".
What two elements of a bargaining situation are most likely subject to
Capabilities - The actor's physical capability to prevail in conflict: troop strength it can mobilize, quantity and quality of arms, and economic ability to fund war effort.
Resolve - The willingness of an actor to take on costs in order to obtain victory or good
What is meant by brinksmanship? Why might it be useful in a bargaining situation?
A strategy in which adversaries take actions that increase the risk of war, with the hope the other will "blink," or lose its nerve, first and make concessions. It might be useful for states to signal their resolve, separating resolute from irresolute adversaries. *Brinkmanship is otherwise thought of as the slippery slope. State approaches the brink of war by using provocative actions. Each side will move further down the slope until one side decides to give in or they both fall together. Actors can use brinkmanship because it gives credibility to a threat of war. Being willing to risk war separates resolute and irresolute opposing actors.
What is meant by tying of hands? Why might it be useful in a bargaining situation?
States can send credible signs of their willingness to fight by making threats in a way that would make backing down difficult; basically flexing.
Tying of hands separates the resolute from the irresolute.
What makes a good indivisible and how does indivisibility affect the prospects for war?
A good becomes indivisible when it cannot be divided without diminishing its value. Indivisibility increases the likelihood of war because if the good in question is indivisible, the bargaining between two states becomes all or nothing.
What are commitment problems? Why do they affect the likelihood of war?
2 actors would better off in the present by committing themselves to a cooperative relationship in the future
Identify three general strategies to make war less likely.
Raising the cost of war. Increasing transparency. Providing outside enforcement of commitments.
What is the unitary actor assumption?
Thinking of the state as a unitary actor without looking at different actors within the state itself.
What is the "rally effect"? Give a historical example.
The tendency for people to become more supportive of their country's government in response to dramatic international events, such as crises or wars. The Falkland Islands in 1982, Argentina and UK. Both countries had economic downturns and their leaders had low approval ratings. Argentina wanted to take back the Falklands from the UK to gain support of the population. UK adamantly opposed Argentina's actions. Argentines were very supportive of the move, but after it failed the population went back to being unhappy. In the UK, Thatcher's approval ratings soared and she was re-elected.
What is meant by the diversionary incentive?
The incentive state leaders have to start international crises in order to rally public support at home.
What is meant by the military-industrial complex?
The alliance between military leaders and the industries that benefit from international conflict, such as arms manufacturers.
What is the distinction between hawks and doves in the context of foreign policy?
Hawk: Favors use of military means
Dove: opposed to use of military means
What is meant by the democratic peace?
Democracies rarely, if ever, go to war with each other.
Identify and explain the two core elements of democracy.
Contestation (the ability of different individuals and groups to compete for political office)
Participation (ability of a large portion of the county to be involved in the election process through voting)
How do leader's interests and options differ in democratic and nondemocratic countries?
Democratic leaders face higher cost when it comes to going to war because of accountability to the people thus interest align between the ruler and the ruled where as in a nondemocratic society the ruler is more likely to accept the cost of war and thus more likely to go to war because he does not face the threat of accountability.
Identify and contrast the two general approaches to conflict resolution contained in the United Nations Charter.
Peace-enforcement is a military operation to enforce peace between two warring countries who have not agreed to stop fighting. Peacekeeping is when troops are deployed to monitor a peace agreement
What is the difference between an alliance and a collective security organization?
Alliance: Institutions that help members cooperate militarily in the event of a war.
Collective Security Organization: Institutions that facilitate cooperation among their members.
What is the difference between "balancing" and "bandwagoning"?
Balancing - states ally to balance out power of other state or alliance. Bandwagoning - state joins the stronger side in a conflict to share the spoils of conquest
Refer to the bargaining diagram in Figure 5.2 on p.193 of the text. What happens to the bargaining range when a third state C is expected to join state B in the event of a war?
Bargaining range shifts to A/C's favor - war becomes less attractive to B
Name the permanent members of the UN Security Council.
U.S., U.K., France, China, and Russia
What is the Responsibility to Protect (R2P)?
New principle in the UN that states that a national government has the responsibility to protect its own people. If it cannot or does not, the UN has the responsibility to do so.
Identify one currently existing collective security organization and give one actual example of a successful collective security operation it performed.
United Nations, when the UN helped assert international assistance to the US when Iraq Invaded Kuwait in 1990.
Provide a definition of terrorism.
The use or threatened use of violence against noncombatant targets by individuals or non state groups for political ends.
What is meant by asymmetrical warfare?
Armed conflict between actors with highly unequal military capabilities, such as when rebel groups or terrorists fight strong states.
Warfare involving surprise attacks by small, simply armed groups on a nation armed with modern high-tech weaponry. Ex: Vietnam war—we were the superpower but we did not know how to fight a guerilla war.
What do we mean when we say that terrorists are rational?
They respond to risk and assess their targets. Terrorists are rational because terrorist networks choose targets, respond to risk and adjust to counter-terrorist efforts in rational way. Even random terrorist attacks have a strategy behind them.
What is the difference between the terrorist strategies of coercion and provocation?
Coercion is a threat to impose costs on other actors in order to change their behavior while provocation is a strategy that provokes the target government to act in a way that would make them look bad to sympathetic audiences.
What is the difference between the terrorist strategies of spoiling and outbidding?
Spoilers attack in an effort to persuade the enemy that moderates on the terrorists' side are weak and untrustworthy, therefore undermining attempts to reach a peace settlement. Groups engaged in outbidding use violence to convince the public that the terrorists have greater resolve to fight the enemy than rival groups, and therefore are worthy of support.
What is the difference between separatism and irredentism?
Sep. creates an independent state while Irr. joins a territory to an existing state
What is meant by the statement that civil wars are usually caused by grievance or greed?
More civil wars happen in countries that are poor or have poor governments
What is proxy war? Give an historical example of a proxy war.
conflicts in which two opposing states "fight" by supporting opposite sides in war, such as the government and rebels in a third state
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