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Anatomy and Physiology test
Hopkinsville Community College
Terms in this set (158)
How much of the body's mass is made of muscle?
Muscle is named after what?
A latin word Mus, meaning little mouse
What are common words in the language of muscles?
Myo, Mus(both meaning muscle), and sarco (flesh)
Skeletal Muscle Tissue
voluntary; will contract to move parts of your body, striated (striped), multinucleated, nuclei
Cardiac Muscle Tissue
involuntary, striated, has a central nucleus, cells are arranged end to end, autorhythmic. found only in the heart
involuntary, non-striated, central nucleus, contract together. Lines stomach and digestive tract, very laid back, pushes food through
meaning outside the muscle-it is continuous. It goes to the end of the muscle and becomes a tendon that connects the muscle to the bone
Each individual muscle bundle. Each one is made of 12-15 muscle fibers; the muscle is made of 30-45 bundles; a muscle is in essence a bundle of these.
meaning within the muscle: a wispy sheath of connective tissue that surrounds each muscle fiber. It consists of fine areolar connective tissue
Layer of connective tissue that covers the Fascicle
A single muscle fiber contains hundreds to thousands of these rod like things
granules of stored glycogen that provide glucose during muscle cell activity
a red pigment that stores oxygen for the short term or emergency use
Special characteristics of muscle
1. excitable to contract, excited by the nervous system. 2. Contractibility, muscle becomes shorter when it's excited 3. Extensibility, being able to stretch some 4. Elasticity, when you stretch muscle out and it recoils
Produces movement, maintains posture and body position, Stabilizes joints, Generate heat, Move food material, body openings, arrector pilli
Gross Anatomy of muscle
They have a rich blood supply, rich nerve supply, they heal faster than connective tissue
Connective tissue sheaths
Epimysium, Perimysium, Endomysium
Epimysium; fused straight into the bone with no tendon. AKA fleshly attachment
The muscle's connective tissue wrappings extend byond the muscle as either a ropelike tendon or a sheet like aponeurosis. Much more common
rope like connective tissue
Thin, Flat, sheet like connective tissue
muscle cell membrane
Living liquid inside muscle cell (cytoplasm everywhere else)
Stripes of light and dark
Dark bands; made of myacin myofilament, a thick filament muscle protein. Myacin blocks light, making this appear dark. A building site for ATP
Light bands; Made of actin myofilament, a thin filament muscle protein. Actin doesn't block light, making it look lighter.
on the a band, the midsection has a lighter region.
The H zone is bisected vertically by this. it's formed by molecules of the protein myomesin
A darker region found in the center of the I band
muscle equivalent of microfilaments. AKA Filament
The smallest functional unit of muscle; the region between two successive z discs; align mycrofibril like the boxcars of a train
To contract muscle, what slides over what?
To contract a muscle, Actin has to slide over myacin
The moveable part of the muscle
Where the muscle came from, immovable part
Polypeptide strands of this rod shaped protein wrap around the actin core to stiffen and stabilize. It covers the myosin binding site to prevent the myosin from attaching to it
the other major protein in thin filaments; it's a globular three-polypeptide complex
composed of the giant protein titin, which extends from the z disc to the thick filament, making up its core.
links the thin filaments to the integral proteins of the sarcolemma.
carried the nerve impulse to the end of the Axon where the Axon Terminals are
When enlarged, the nerve impulse goes into this causing the cavity to open and the calcium ion to enter it. They push the synaptic vessels to the edge of this.
Carry the molecules to the neurotransmitter
When the synaptic vessel is pushed to the edge of the Axon Terminal, it releases this stored neuro-transmitter into the Synaptic cleft. When it combines with a receptor, it opens a gate
The space between the muscle and the axon terminal
Why does the ACh "open a gate"
When it combines with a receptor, it opens a gate so that sodium ions can diffuse into the muscle and Potassium ions can diffuse into the sarcolema
the exchange of ions, or wave depolarization. It runs on the outside and inside of the muscle
It runs on the outside and into the muscle through the T Tubercle.
opening that allows impulses to go through the muscles
Sarcoplasmic Reticulum (SR)
An elaborate smooth endoplasmic reticulum that surrounds each microfibril. It is made of chambers and tubes.
Sarcoplasmic Reticulum (SR) Job
As an impulse goes by the SR, it releases calcium ions that flow out and attaches to the actin myofilament.
What happens with actin and myocin when the muscle is not contracting:
The tropomyocin inhibits the myosin from attaching to the actin by covering the actin binding site. The troponin are straight and the Tropomyocin is in front of the actin.
What happens with actin and myocin when the muscle is contracting:
Brought to you by the neurotransmitter ACh; Troponin (with Calcium ions attached) contracts into a "c" shape with the tropomyocin attached to it, leaving the actin and it's binding site exposed. The myocin attaches to the binding site and a cross bridge is formed
formed when a myocin attaches to a myosin binding sire because the tropomyocin has been moved.
Myocin moves the actin OVER the Myocin making the muscle shorter or contract. ATP is produced along with
Does the Myocin move when a muscle contracts?
NO, the actin is moved BY the Myocin
Brought to you by the enzyme Acetyl cholinesterase (produced by muscle tissue) that diffuses into the synapses across the sarcoplasm. It breaks down the ACh. Muscle impulse has been turned off like a light switch. The actin slides back into place covering the binding site, the calcium ions break off and makes its way back to the sarcoplasmic reticulum as the channels close
What does Acetyl cholinesterase do?
It assists in muscle relaxation; it diffuses into the synapses across the sarcoplasm and breaks down the ACh.
What does the ACh break down into?
into choline and acetic acid, therefore when your muscles relax, they produce these two things
Caused by a bacterium called clostridium tetini found in soil usually with animal feces. They are anaerobic and produce a poison called Tetebospasmin which gets into your bloodstream, It inhibits your ability to make Acetyl cholinesterase so your muscles cannot relax. AKA Lockjaw.
caused by soil bacterium called clostridium Botulinum. The toxins prohibit ACh so you cannot contract your muscle-called Flaccid Paralysis. It paralysis your breathing muscles and your heart.
The motor unit
in the muscle, small and large
Large motor unit
Neuron with hundreds of branches sends neural impulses to hundreds of muscle fibers. The movement is course, not fine. Found in back muscles
Small motor unit
Neuron with a few branches sends neural impulses to, let's say, 3 muscle fibers. found in the eye because of the fine, very exact movement needed.
found only in a laboratory. Electrostimulus contracts, relaxes and flatlines; recorded by a myograph machine. This can record and plot muscle movement in contraction and relaxation.
The information received from a myograph machine
The time that lapses from the electro stimulus to muscle contraction. Usually about 5 ms (milliseconds)
Period of contraction
How long it takes the muscle to contract: Usually about 25 ms
Period of relaxation
How long it takes the muscle to become completely relaxed; Usually about 110 ms
Lateral rectus; around the eye ball- contracts and relaxes very quickly at about 20 ms
Calf muscle; not as precise as the eye so it takes a little longer to contract and relax; about 72 ms
muscle on the side of the leg; very laid back. contracts and relaxes very slowly; about200 ms
On a myograph machine, when you "zap" a muscle before it has time to completely relax, therefore the more tension results. It causes Incomplete Tetanus
On a myograph machine, when the muscle never has time to completely relax
Take an electrode and stimulate the muscle constantly causing a high stimulation frequency. This is the only thing that happens in "real life". Ie, standing on one leg
When you stimulate a muscle and it becomes shorter; ie lifting weights
When you stimulate a muscle, but it doesn't become shorter. ie trying to lift a desk that has been bolted to the floor. Since it's impossible, the muscle doesn't contract
Firmness of a muscle; muscles contract and relax a little bit to keep the muscles firm, but not enough to move them
providing energy to muscles- producing ATP molecules and giving them to muscles so they can use it to contract and relax
3-4 hours after death muscles stiffen because there is no muscular energy to relax. Afterwards, the muscles are flaccid and cannot contract
Uses creatine phosphate(only stored in muscle tissue) +ADP= ATP. Used for emergencies only. Usually runs out in 10-25ft
Used after Direct Phosphorylation has run its course. AKA Glycolysis; the 1st step of muscle metabolism; doesn't use oxygen. Produces 2 ATP per glucose molecule
Blood has glucose that diffuses into the muscle cell; the cell attaches 2 phosphate groups to glucose so it cannot escape. Now it can be burned or oxidized by the muscle. 6 carbon glucose is broken down into 2 pyruvic acids with 3 carbons each. This process produces 2 ATP and happens in milliseconds
Uses oxygen; Second step in muscle metabolism; it has 2 parts, Krebs cycle and Electron Transport chain. Produces 32ATP per glucose molecule
An aerobic pathway. A very slow moving "water wheel" . You pour pyruvic acid into the top, and NADH comes out.
Electron Transport Chain
OOOOOOOOO 9 cytochrome links; pour NAHD in as electrons move it down the chain; energy is produced as well as ATP. The NAD is recycled back into the Krebs Cycle as the hydrogen follows the electron down the chain. By the end, the electron is out of energy so oxygen accepts both electron and H and makes H2Owhich we use to make urine and sweat. Oxygen is the final electron receptor
I glucose molecule = how many ATPs?
2 aerobic and 32 aerobic= 34 ATP grand total
running, use Direct ; then Glycolysis. But the Krebs cycle is so slow that the pyruvic acid is building up so our body changes this to lactic acid so it can be stored. This LA lowers our pH in muscle tissue causing them to tire. Then you need to pay your oxygen debt
When you are experiencing Muscle fatigue from buildup of lactic acid, you are tired and sucking in oxygen, so both are carried to your liver. the liver takes them and makes glucose. This process takes a while, but athletes build up a tolerance to lactic acid
All or none law of muscle contraction
When a muscle contracts, it does it as hard as it can. How hard you hit something depends on how many muscle fibers you recruit; ie 100 fibers, light hit, 10,000 fibers, hard hit
When you "bulk up", you don't get more muscles, you change the size of each individual muscle fiber
Slow oxidative fibers
it has a lot of myoglobin and many mitochondria so it contracts slowly and resists fatigue. Found in dark meat of foul so they can run all day long and not tire
fast glycolytic fibers
contracts rapidly, anaerobic and no myoglobin; tires quickly. found in white meat in foul to control the wings.
in-between Slow oxidative fibers and fast glycolytic fibers
Types of smooth muscles
Unitary Smooth Muscles , Multiunit smooth muscles
Unitary Smooth Muscles
Found in large sheets of muscle ie wrapped around intestines
Smooth muscles do this wave-like contractions that help move food from one end to the other
Multiunit smooth muscles
Not in large sheets, in smaller units. ie in breathing tubes, large arteries, arrector pilli muscles and the muscles that determine the diameter or your pupils
A recessive trait inherited through the mother, usually men that have it. It is first diagnosed between ages 2-7. Muscles begin to deteriorate and there is no treatment so they rarely live to be in their early 20's as it affects breathing muscles.
Chronic inflammation of the muscle, connective tissue coverings and tendons and capsules of nearby joints; symptoms are non-specific
Protrusion of a body organ through its body cavity wall
Myofascial pain syndrome
pain caused by tightened muscle fibers that twitch when the skin over them is touched. Associated with overused or strained postural muscles
4 functional groups of muscles
Agonist , Antagonist , Synergists , Fixators
or prime mover, does the most work
muscles are arranged in opposing pairs, this one opposes what the agonist is doing.
Helpers, they assist both the agonists and antagonists
allow the body to be fixated or stable when the other muscles are moving around
How are muscles named?
1. Location, ie frontallis on frontal bone 2. muscle shape ie deltoid 3. muscle size ie gluteus Maximus 4. direction of muscle ie errectus ↑ or transversus ↔ 5. # of origins ie triceps have three, 6. Location of attachments ie sternocliodmastoid-sternum-clavicle-mastoid 7. Muscle action ie flexor, extensor, adductor abductor
Circular arrangement of fascicles
Arranged in concentric rings
Convergent arrangement of fascicles
Broad origin converges towards a single tendon insertion
parallel arrangement or fascicles
parallel to the long axis of straplike muscle
Spindle-shaped muscles with parallel fibers (ie biceps brachi)
Pennate= feather. one side of connective tissue has muscle fibers; half feather
Both sides of connective tissue have muscle fibers, full feather
What is the "Surprise" muscle?
Helps with Chewing. O-Temporal bone I-Mandible
Main chewing muscle; O-zygomatic bone I-ramus of mandible
helps move the head; O sternum and Clavicle, I-mastoid process
What muscle do you use to Bow your head?
Platysma; O-chest I- mandible
What is the Pouting muscle?
Mentalis muscle, pulls lower lip down
What is the Kissing muscle?
What is your Trumpeter Muscle?
Buccunator, cheek muscle
What is your grinning muscle?
Zygomatic major and minor; O-Zygomatic bone I- corners of mouth
What is your winking muscle?
Obicularis Oculi; circular muscle that surrounds the eye
What is your "mean" muscle?
Corrugator supercilli, wrinkles your brow
O-mandible, I-Hyoid bone
O-Styloid process, I-Hyoid bone
What is a "muscle belly"
The widest part of the muscle. One has 2 bellies, superior being on top of the inferior
has 2 bellies; O-Scapula, I-Hyoid bone
O-Thyroid Cartilage I-Hyoid
White line, connective tissue on abdomen
Delineates the "6 pack"; it is tissue, not muscle
4 layers of abdominal muscles
1. Innermost layer: Transverse Abdominus↔ 2. Then: Rectus Abdominus ↕ 3. At same level: Internal Oblique↘↙ 4. Outermost Layer: External oblique↖↗
in waves, covers the lower ribs
Convergent muscle: O-clavicle and sternum, I-Humerus
2 origins/heads; agonist
Agonist to the biceps brachialis
Largest muscle of lower arm
Above spine of scapula
below spine of scapula
Teres major and minor
both move humerus
opposes Bicep Brachia
Lower back muscle
What 4 muscles all flex lower leg toward abdomen
Quadraus Lumborum, Psoas major, psoas minor, Iliacus
Outside thigh, abductor. moves thighs apart
Adductor on inside of thigh, moves legs closer
→← are on the inside of muscles
↔ are on the outside of muscles
on the anterior superior iliac spine- goes diagonally across the tleg to the interior of the knee. Rotates lower leg to the outside
1. rectus femoris 2. vastus lateralis 3.vastus medialis 4. vastus inermedius
Adductors of the inner thigh
adductor longus, gracilis, adductor magnus
Largest muscles in the human body?
Biceps femoris (long and short head), Semi-teninosis, semi-membraneuous, gluteus maximus
What "femoris" is on the back of the thigh?
What "femoris" is on the front of the thigh?
Recommended textbook explanations
Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology
Michelle Provost-Craig, Susan J. Hall, William C. Rose
Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology
Elaine N. Marieb
Hole's Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology
David N. Shier, Jackie L. Butler, Ricki Lewis
Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology
Elaine N. Marieb
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