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123 terms

Medical Terminology Chapter 10 Word List

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inferior vena cava
receives blood from lower limbs and abdominal organs and empties into the posterior part of the right atrium of the heart
superior vena cava
receives blood from the head and arms and chest and empties into the right atrium of the heart
atrium, atria
One of the two upper cavities of the heart receiving blood from the veins
ventricles
lower chambers of the heart that pump blood out of the heart
tricuspid valve
located between the right atrium and the right ventricle. closes when the right ventricle contracts, allowing blood flow into the lungs and prevent backflow into the right atrium
pulmonary valve
a semilunar valve between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery
pulmonary arteries
carry deoxygenated blood out of the right ventricle and into the lungs
pulmonary veins
deliver oxygen rich blood from the lungs to the left atrium
mitral valve/bicuspid valve
Left atrioventricular valve, consists of two cusps, preventing back-flow of blood of from the ventricle to the atrium
aortic valve
a semilunar valve between the left ventricle and the aorta
aorta
the large trunk artery that carries blood from the left ventricle of the heart to branch arteries
systemic circulation
circulation that supplies blood to all the body except to the lungs and heart
sinoatrial node
a specialized bit of heart tissue that controls the heartbeat
atrioventricular node
a node of specialized heart muscle located in the septal wall of the right atrium
bundle of His
a bundle of modified heart muscle that transmits the cardiac impulse from the atrioventricular node to the ventricles causing them to contract
right and left bundle branches
Continuations of the Bundle of HIS. They proceed along the right and left sides of the interventricular septum to the tips of the two ventricles
purkinje fibers
fibers in the ventricles that transmit impulses to the right and left ventricles, causing them to contract
arteries
Blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart
arterioles
small vessels that receive blood from the arteries
capillaries
tiny vessels that join arterioles and venules
venules
small vessels that gather blood from the capillaries into the veins
veins
blood vessels that carry blood back to the heart
systole
the contraction of the chambers of the heart (especially the ventricles) to drive blood into the aorta and pulmonary artery
diastole
the widening of the chambers of the heart between two contractions when the chambers fill with blood
blood pressure
the pressure of the circulating blood against the walls of the blood vessels
sphygmomanometer
a pressure gauge for measuring blood pressure
anaglesic
A drug class that relieves mild to moderate pain by reducing the perception of pain
anorexia
a prolonged disorder of eating due to loss of appetite
ascites
accumulation of serous fluid in peritoneal cavity
atherosclerosis
condition in which fatty deposits called plaque build up on the inner walls of the arteries
bruit
An abnormal blowing or swishing sound heard on auscultation of an artery or an organ
claudication
disability of walking due to crippling of the legs or feet
coronary artery
the artery that branches from the aorta to supply blood to the heart
cusp
a thin triangular flap of a heart valve
dysrhythmia
abnormal heart rhythm
edema
swelling from excessive accumulation of serous fluid in tissue
epicardium
the innermost of the two layers of the pericardium
hypertension
a common disorder in which blood pressure remains abnormally high (a reading of 140/90 mm Hg or greater)
hypotension
abnormally low blood pressure
infarction
localized necrosis resulting from obstruction of the blood supply
ischemia
local anemia in a given body part sometimes resulting from vasoconstriction or thrombosis or embolism
lumen
a cavity or passage in a tubular organ
mediastinum
the part of the thoracic cavity between the lungs that contains the heart, aorta, esophagus, trachea and thymus
murmur
an abnormal sound of the heart
myocardium
the middle muscular layer of the heart wall
occlusion
an obstruction in a pipe or tube
pacemaker
a specialized bit of heart tissue that controls the heartbeat
palpable
capable of being touched or felt
palpitation
a rapid and irregular heart beat
pericardium
a double-layered serous membrane that surrounds the heart
pitting edema
edema in which firm finger pressure on the skin produces an indentation (pit) that remains for several seconds
pulmonary circulation
circulation of blood between the heart and the lungs
septum
Divides the right and left chambers of the heart
thrombosis
the formation or presence of a thrombus (a clot of coagulated blood attached at the site of its formation) in a blood vessel
vasoconstriction
narrowing of blood vessels
vegetation
inactivity that is passive and monotonous, comparable to the inactivity of plant life
angi/o
blood vessel
arter/o, arteri/o
artery
ather/o
fatty plaque
cardi/o
heart
coron/o
heart
echo-
A repeated sound
my/o
muscle
megal/o
enlarged
ventricul/o
ventricle
bradycardia
abnormally slow heartbeat
pallor
unnatural lack of color in the skin (as from bruising or sickness or emotional distress)
tachycardia
abnormally rapid heartbeat (over 100 beats per minute)
coronary artery disease
a stage of arteriosclerosis involving fatty deposits (atheromas) inside the arterial walls
cyanosis
condition of blueness
dyspnea
difficult or labored respiration
percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty
a procedure in which a small balloon on the end of a catheter is used to open a partially blocked coronary artery by flattening the plaque deposit and stretching the lumen (AKA angioplasty)
coronary bypass surgery
surgery to provide an alternate route for blood to reach heart tissue, bypassing a blocked coronary artery
angina pectoris
chest pain that results when the heart does not get enough oxygen
cardiac tamponade
acute compression of the heart caused by fluid accumulation in the pericardial cavity
cardiomyopathy
a disorder (usually of unknown origin) of the heart muscle (myocardium)
myocardial infarction
destruction of heart tissue resulting from obstruction of the blood supply to the heart muscle
congestive heart failure
inability to pump enough blood to avoid congestion in the tissues
endocarditis
inflammation of the endocardium and heart valves
pericarditis
inflammation of the pericardium
hypertensive heart disease
high blood pressure affecting the heart
mitral valve prolapse
backward movement of the mitral valve cusps allowing regurgitation
aneurysm
the balooning out of an artery wall at a point where it has grown weak
aneurysmectomy
surgical removal of an aneurysm
arteriosclerosis
hardening of the arteries
thrombophlebitis
inflammation of a vein associated with a clot formation
varicose veins (varices)
enlarged veins in which blood pools because the valves are not working right (incompetent) usually in the lower legs
vein stripping
Surgical treatment for sever varicose veins in which the affected veins are severed and removed
tetralogy of Fallot
a congenital malformation of the heart involving four distinct defects
patent ductus arteriosus
a ductus arteriosus that failed to close at birth
coarctation of the aorta
narrowing of the descending portion of the aorta, resulting in a limited flow of blood to the lower part of the body
heart block; atrioventricular (AV) block
An interference with the normal conduction of electric impulses that control activity of the heart muscle
atrial flutter
condition is which the contractions of the atria become extremely rapid, at the rate of between 250-400 BPM
atrial fibrillation
results in uncoordinated twitching of the atria. ventricles are unable to keep up and contract adequately
ventricular fibrillation
the rapid, irregular, and useless contractions of the ventricles
angiography
X-ray of the blood vessels after injecting a contrast medium
cardiac catherterization
procedure where a catheter is passed through a vein or artery and guided into the heart
echocardiography
diagnostic procedure for studying the structure and motion of the heart using ultra-sound waves
electrocardiogram
record of the electrical activity of the heart
magnetic resonance imaging
the use of nuclear magnetic resonance of protons to produce proton density images
AS
aortic stenosis
ASHD
arteriosclerotic heart disease
AV
atrioventricular
BBB
bundle-branch block
BP
blood pressure
CABG
coronary artery bypass graft
CAD
coronary artery disease
CCU
Coronary/Critical Care Unit
CHF
congestive heart failure
CPR
cardiopulmonary resuscitation
DVT
deep vein thrombosis
ECG, EKG
electrocardiogram
MI
myocardial infarction
MRI
Magnetic resonance imaging
PACs
premature atrial contractions
PTCA
percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty
PVCs
premature ventricular contractions
SA
sinoatrial
VT, V-TAC, V-TACH
Ventricular tachycardia
a-fib
Atrial fibrillation
HTN
hypertension
Four Arrhythmias
atrial flutter, atrial fibrillation, ventricular fibrillation, heart block; atrioventricular (AV) block
Cardiac circulation pathway
inferior/superior vena cava; right atrium; tricuspid valve; right ventricle (systole); pulmonary valve; pulmonary arteries (deoxygenated); pulmonary veins (oxygenated); left atrium; mitral valve (bicuspid valve); left ventricle (diastole); aortic valve; aorta