23 terms

Unit 3 Structure and Function of Cells

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cell
the smallest functional and structural unit of all living things
prokaryote
single-celled organism that does not have a nucleus or membrane bound organelles
eukaryote
an organism made up of cells that have a nucleus enclosed by a membrane
DNA
molecule present in all living things; contains the information that determines the traits that a living thing inherits and needs to live
organelle
structures within a cell that perform specific functions
nucleus
a membrane-bound organelle that contains the cell's DNA and that has a role in processes such as growth, metabolism and reproduction
cytoplasm
the fluid inside the cell that acts as a cushion
cell wall
a rigid structure that surrounds the cell membrane and provides support to the cell
cell membrane
protective layer that covers the cell's surface and acts as a barrier
mitochondria
an organelle that is the site of cellular energy; produces energy (ATP)
chloroplast
organelle that contains chlorophyll; the site of photosynthesis
homeostasis
the maintenance of a constant internal state in a changing environment
diffusion
movement of particles from areas of high concentration to low concentration
osmosis
the diffusion of water through a semipermeable membrane
photosynthesis
process in which some organisms use sunlight, carbon dioxide and water to make food
cellular respiration
the process by which cells use oxygen to produce energy from food
mitosis
process of cell division that form two new nuclei, each of which has the same number of chromosomes
meiosis
process of cell division during which the number of chromosomes decreases to half the original number by two divisions of the nucleus, which results in the production of sex cells
tissue
a group of similar cells that work together to perform a common function
organ
a collection of tissues that carry out a specialized function of the body
organ system
a group of organs that work together to perform body functions
structure
the arrangement of parts in an organism
function
the special, normal or proper activity of an organ or part
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