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APES Unit 2A Test
Terms in this set (69)
Output Pollution Cleanup
typical way of assessing environmental problems. Cleaning up pollutants after they have been produced. Most expensive and time consuming. Reactionary. Adds more pollutants to problem evidently. ex: BP spill
Increase in the capacity to provide goods and services for people's use
Gross National Product
Measures economic growth in a country.
Gross Domestic Product
Market value in current dollars of all goods and services produced only within a country during one year. ex: our Real estate driven economy.
More Developed Countries
Highly industrialized. Average per capita GNP above $4000.
Less Developed Countries
‣ Low to moderate industrialization
‣ Average per capita GNP below $4000
the transforming of local or regional markets or societies to global ones.
the process of Globilization
the world wide spread of trade, migration, technology, and ideas.
Advantages of Globilization
-access to new ways of thinking
-access to global markets to sell/manufacture products
-multiculturalism and access to new societies
Disadvantages of Globilization
-the loss of regional/cultural beliefs and ways of life
-global financial disasters
-exploitation of workers in developing countries
originally designed to help rebuild Europe's economies after the second world war
the financing of economic and infrastructure polices of
What are the World Bank current goals?
Low interest loans.
By financing policies that favor the interests of member countries rather than countries in need.
What does the Bank offer to approved developing countries? How does it have the opposite effect.?
(represented on the periodic table) are the distinctive
building blocks of matter.
two or more different elements held together in fixed
proportions by chemical bonds.
carbon. At least two carbon atoms are combined. Anything else in inorganic.
What does organic compounds contain?
compounds of carbon and hydrogen atoms
the ability to do work and transfer heat
energy in motion. ex: heat, electromagnetic radiation
stored for possible use. ex: batteries, glucose molecules
2.Wasteful resource use
What are the major causes of environmental problems?
occurred 12,000 years ago. led to the creation of villages, towns, and cities.
-Spurred more trade
-Marked the start of the increase in global population
‣Occurred ~250 y.a. Cheap goods and mass consumption
‣Electricity - burns fossil fuels
‣More people left farms for cities
‣Larger amounts of land farmed by fewer people
‣Natural resources in high demand
‣Sanitation, medicines and more food!
‣Human population expanded
In the Last 50 years
‣Human population expanded
‣Communication and transportation advances
‣Natural resources extracted and transported more
‣use of pesticides and fertilizers
‣Human population passed 7 billion
‣Global demand for products increases
‣Decreased resources, but increased waste
point at which the world's petroleum extraction reaches it's peak and starts to decline -raising prices and geopolitical tensions.
I= P x A x T
I = Human Impact on the Environment
P = Human Population
A = Affluence
T = Technology
How do we measure human impact on the environment?
the accumulation of endless increases in
material wealth may lead to feelings of worthlessness and
dissatisfaction rather than experiences of a 'better life'
The Gaia Hypothesis
Organisms co-evolve with their environment. The abiotic influences the biotic which then in
turn, influence the abiotic. (Bacteria which
created the atmosphere)
people annihilated their culture by destroying
What is the lesson of easter island?
Natural capital degradation
The exponential increasing flow of material resources
through the world's economic systems depletes,
degrades and pollutes the environment
‣ Perpetually available: sunlight, wind, wave energy
‣ Renew themselves over short periods: timber, water, soil
‣ These can be destroyed
can be depleted
‣ Oil, coal, minerals
‣ Can only be reused or recycled
Tragedy of the Commons
By people using resources as much as possible for their own individual purposes, it maximizes their benefits and depletes everyone else. Led to the destruction.
Garret Hardin's Tragedy of the Commons
•Unregulated exploitation leads to resource depletion. Resource users just keep using till the resource is gone.
Solution to the Tragedy of the Commons
-Voluntary organization to enforce responsible use
• Author of Silent Spring (1962)
• Book was influential in banning of DDT
• Kicked off the Environmental Movement
Environmental and political activist in Kenya. founded the Green Belt Movement in Africa and helped to plant over 30 million trees, providing jobs to the unemployed while also preventing soil erosion and securing firewood. Won Nobel Peace Prize. Fought for political and women oppression and for the environment.
something can keep going, indefinitely. ex: solar energy, tidal power, wind power.
‣ Leaves future generations with a rich and full Earth
‣ Conserves the Earth's natural resources
‣ Maintains fully functioning ecological systems
things that are finite. ex: precious metals, coal, nuclear energy
the use of resources to satisfy current needs without compromising future availability of resources
The environmental impact of a person or population
‣ Amount of biologically productive land + water
‣ for raw materials and to dispose/recycle waste
humans have surpassed the earth's capacity
the amount of available resources
First Law of Thermodynamics
‣ we cannot create or destroy energy.
‣ We can change energy from one form to another.
Second Law of Thermodynamics
‣ energy quality always decreases.
‣ When energy changes from one form to another, it is always degraded to a more dispersed form
a measure of how much useful work is accomplished before it changes to its next form.
The perception of what constitutes a problem varies between individuals and societies
human impact on resources
how humans effect the natural world has increased dramatically as the scope and intensity of human activities have increased.
global human impact
the result of resource use, rapid population growth, large population size, and disproportionate distribution of resources.
Impact on water
rises in sea water, threatened coastal areas. availability, quality, and distribution in diminishing.
Impact on food
problems with distribution, over 1 billion are undernourished.
key fish stocks to levels where recovery is unlikely has occurred in many fishing grounds.
What is global energy consumption expected to rise to by 2050?
around 30 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide.
What does the use of fossil fuels put into the air?
global warming, ozone depletion, and acid rain
What does air pollution contribute to?
forest fires and logging
How is the extent of forests reduced?
What are aquatic environments at the risk of?
point source pollutants
from single, identifiable sources. ex: smokestack of a power plant
non point source pollutants
dispersed and often difficult to identify sources. ex: storm drains
construction, deforestation, air pollutants, urban area discharge into bodies of water, farming practices that result in nutrient and pesticide leaching
List the different type of pollutants.
• Gather baseline data on the ecosystem or its resources.
• Monitor changes in the resource once it is in use.
• Attempt to predict future changes in the ecosystem.
What are the roles of scientists?
when an output of a system is fed back as an input (two types)
positive feedback loop
runaway cycles where a change in a certain direction causes further change in the same direction
negative feedback loop
when a change in a certain direction leads to a lessening of that change
Input pollution control
Slows or eliminates the production of pollutants,
often by switching to less harmful chemicals or
reduce, reuse, refuse, recycle
Describing effects or processes that are derived from human activities, as opposed to effects or processes that occur in the natural environment without human influences
ecological tipping point
the sustainability threshold level of an environment before it becomes irreversibly destroyed
Natural resources/services that keep us alive and support our economies
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