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Terms in this set (23)
Ad hominem charges make a personal attack rather than focusing on the issue at hand.
Guilt By Association
Guilt by association attacks someone's credibility by linking that person with a person or activity the audience considers bad.
False authority is often used by advertisers who show famous actors or athletes testifying to the greatness of a product
Bandwagon appeal suggests that a great movement is under way and the reader will be a fool or a traitor not to join it.
Flattery tries to persuade readers by suggesting that they are thoughtful, intelligent, or perceptive enough to agree with the writer.
In-crowd appeal, a special kind of flattery, invites readers to identify with an admired and select group.
Veiled threats try to frighten readers into agreement by hinting that they will suffer adverse consequences if they don't agree.
False analogies make comparisons between two situations that are not alike in important respects.
Begging The Question
begging the question is a kind of circular argument that treats a debatable statement as if it had been proved true.
Post Hocc Fallacy
The post hocc fallacy assumes that just because B happened after A, it must have been caused by A.
A non sequitur attempts to tie together two or more logically unrelated ideas as if they were related.
The either-or fallacy insists that a complex situation can have only two possible outcomes.
A hasty generalization bases a conclusion on too little evidence or on bad or misunderstood evidence.
Oversimplification claims on overly direct relationship between a cause and an effect.
Fallacies can also take the form of misleading images.
Faked or altered photos have existed since the invention of photography.
A straw-man argument misrepresents the opposition by pretending that opponents agree with something that a few reasonable people would support.
Misleading Charts and Graphs
Facts and statistics, too, can be presented in ways that mislead readers.
Appeal to Force
It is a specific case of the negative form of an argument to the consequences.
The genetic fallacy is a fallacy of irrelevance where a conclusion is suggested based solely on someone's or something's history, origin, or source rather than its current meaning or context.
an arguer uses a person of authority as evidence for a claim to be true.
Appeal to Tradition
when it is assumed that something is better or correct simply because it is older
Stacking the Deck
to cheat or to fix something so a desired outcome is achieved.
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