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astronomy chapter 2
Terms in this set (24)
Light travels fast enough to circle Earth almost 7 times in one second.
A photon is a positively charged particle in the atomic nucleus
The higher an object's temperature, the more intensely the object emits light.
The higher an object's temperature, the longer the wavelength at which it emits light most strongly.
If a light source travels toward you, the spectral wavelengths will be blueshifted.
Which of the following travels the fastest?
speed of light is constant, nothing will go faster than the other
What can the speed of light be determined by
can be determined by observing the motions of the moons of Jupiter.
Light of a single wavelength falls on a screen with two narrow, closely spaced slits. On a second screen, a short distance beyond the first. What will be seen?
a series of bright lines with dark spaces in between will be seen.
how much space to visible light take up in the electromagnetic spectrum?
a small part
what is the order if electromagnetic radiations, in order of increasing wavelength.
UV, visible, IR, radio
The temperature of a normal, healthy, human being (37°C) expressed on the Kelvin (absolute) scale is approximately
One star has its peak emission wavelength in the red part of the visible spectrum and one has its peak emission wavelength in the blue part of the visible spectrum. What can you determine about these two stars?
the one that peaks in blue is hotter
Atoms in a thin, hot gas (such as a neon advertising sign) emit light at
specific wavelengths, depending on the element.
The physical structure of an atom is
negatively charged electrons moving around a very small, but massive, positively charged core.
The Doppler effect is the change in the wavelength of light caused by the source
moving with respect to the observer
What is the primary advantage of an orbiting telescope, compared with a ground-based telescope?
It is above the atmosphere that blocks many of the wavelengths that astronomers want to see.
what makes light more particle like
shorter wavelength, higher frequency, higher energy
what makes light more wave like
longer wavelength, lower frequency, lower energy
what is weins law?
the higher the temp the more intense the light, the shorter the wavelength. helpful for determining surface temps of stars
Why is the sky blue?
Daylight sunlight are scattered molecules that make up our atmosphere. Light scattering smaller wavelengths are more effective at scattering short wave photons of blue light and less effective at longer wavelength photons of red light. Air molecules are smaller than the wavelength of visible light so they scatter more blue light than red light making the sky look more blue.
Kirchhoff's first law
a hot opaque body or a hot, dense gas produces a continuous spectrum- a complete rainbow of colors with our any spectral lines
Kirchhoff's second law
a hot transparent gas produces an emission line spectrum- a series of bright spectral lines against a dark background
Kirchhoff's third law
a cool transparent gas in front of a source of a continuous spectrum produces an absorption line spectrum- a series of dark spectral lines among the colors of the continuous spectrum
what is the doppler effect
an objects motion through space is revealed by the precise wavelength positions of its spectrum light
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