Chapter 4: First Age of Empires
Section 1: The Egyptian and Nubian empires Section 2: The Assyrian Empire Section 3: The Persian empire Section 4: The Unification of China
Terms in this set (52)
Nomadic Invaders Rule Egypt
At the end of its second period of glory power struggles weaken Egypt. New Invaders the HYKSOS arrived. They had CHARIOT. Egyptians had never seen this war machine before. Hyksos ruled Egypt for many years.
WHO: invaders of egypt
WHAT: They were Asiatic invaders of Egypt.
WHERE: They ruled Egypt.
WHEN: They ruled from 1640 B.C. - 1570 B.C.
WHY: They ruled Egypt because they invaded them at a time of weak pharaohs and power struggles.
HOW: They had weapons that the Egyptians did not know of.
Hebrews Migrate to Egypt
Some historians believe that that during the the time the Hyksos ruled the Hebrews came. They also believed that that the Hyksos encouraged the Hebrews to Settle in Egypt.
Expulsion And Slavery
In 1600 BC series of warlike rules began to restore Egypt's power. Eventually the Hyksos were driven out.,
-series of warlike rulers helped restore Egypt's power
-King Kamose drove Hyksos out
-hebrews remained in Egypt and forced into hard labor
WHO: Hatshepsut, Thutmose III, and Ramses II were three rulers during this time.
WHAT: Another name for it is the Empire Age and it was when the pharaohs sought to strengthen Egypt by building an empire.
WHERE: The New Kingdom was in Egypt.
WHEN: It was around from 1570 B.C - 1075 B.C.
WHY: They wanted to bring Egypt back to a great power after overthrowing the Hyksos.
HOW: They improved their military by building bronze weapons and chariots.
WHO: A female pharaoh; New Kingdom ruler who encouraged trade instead of war.
WHAT: She was a ruler in the New Kingdom who declared herself pharaoh.
WHERE: She ruled in Egypt.
WHEN: Her reign was from around 1472 B.C. - 1458 B.C.
WHY: She became pharaoh because she felt that her stepson was too young to become the pharaoh of Egypt at the time.
HOW: She declared herself pharaoh.
Stepson of Hatshepsut; considered the greatest Pharoah of the New Kingdom of Egypt; reigned from 1479 B.C. to 1429 B.C.; expanded empire to include Syria and Nubia
Valley of the Kings
An area west of Thebes where many tombs where built after the great pyramids because it allowed for easier guarding and less grave robbery
East African trading empire that developed south of Egypt on the Nile River invaded by Thutmose III and conquered by him.
WHO: Egyptian Pharaoh
WHAT: Signed a peace treaty with a Hittite king
WHEN: Reigned from 1290-1244 BC
WHY: The Egyptians were competing for land with the Hittites and in order to stop the fighting, they left it neutral and signed a peace treaty
WHO: The Kushites lived there, and other people occupied it during different periods of time.
WHAT: It was a Nubian kingdom.
WHERE: It was in Nubia.
WHEN: It was around 2000 B.C. - 1000 B.C. when it came about.
WHY: It emerged as a regional power when the Hyksos power began to decline.
HOW: served as a trade corridor. They linked Egypt and the Mediterranean world to the interior of Africa and to the Red Sea. Goods and ideas flowed back and forth along the river for centuries.
Ruler of Kush, he was one of Kush's most successful military leaders. His army captured all of Egypt.
This is where the Kushite royal family moved south to after being forced out of egypt.
this was the Kushite capital. This city was also used as a major trading city because of its great location due to newly opened land routes and it had lots of iron ore.
WHO: Invaders of Southwest Asia who had a large empire and used military.
WHAT: They were people who acquired a large empire and had a highly advanced military organization and state-of-the-art weapons.
WHERE: They first came from the Northern part of Mesopotamia, but then expanded to other regions.
WHEN: They first came around during 850 B.C.
WHY: They had great military techniques.
HOW: They used fear.
Assyrian king, bragged that he had destroyed 89 cities and 820 villages, burned Babylon, and ordered most of its inhabitants killed.
Military tactics (Assyria)
Pontoons,Tunnels, foot soldiers,wave of arows, battering rams.
Assyrian weapons and equipment
Soldiers covered theselves in Stiff leather and metal armor. Worvcopper or iron helmets, paddded loincloths, and leather skirts layered with metal scales.
Iron Swords and spears
WHO: King Sennacherib established the capital.
WHAT: It was Assyrian's capital.
WHERE: It was in Assyria.
WHEN: It was the capital from 705 B.C. to 612 B.C.
WHY: King Sennacherib established it that way.
King of Assyria who built a magnificent palace and library, collecting 20,000 clay tablets at Nineveh (668-627 BC).
Capitaol of the Assyrian empire; largest city of it's day;
Chaldeans and Medes
WHO: A combined army
WHAT: They were a combined army who defeated the Assyrians by burning Nineveh.
WHERE: It took place in Assyria.
WHEN: They took over Assyria in 612 B.C.
WHY: They felt that they needed to be defeated so the Chaldeans and Medes joined forces and defeated the Assyrians.
WHO? Great Chaldean King
WHAT? Restored the city of Babylon, built the hanging gardens
WHEN? Around 600 BC
WHY? They defeated the Assyrians and made Babylon the capital
WHO: King Nebuchadnezzar made them.
WHAT: They are one of the Seven Ancient Wonders of the World.
WHERE: They were in Babylon.
WHEN: They were built around 600 B.C.
WHY: They are said to have been built to please one of Nebuchadnezzar's wives because she missed the trees, flowers and other plants form her homeland, so he made the Hanging Gardens.
HOW: Nebuchadnezzar had people make the plants go all over the city of Babylon.
WHO: The people who enforced it was the authority.
WHAT: It is a policy of extending rule or authority.
WHERE: It can occur anywhere.
WHEN: It was used hundreds of years ago and is still used today.
WHY: It happens when rulers want more power so they spread out their rule.
WHO: Darius established it. Each has its own satrap, religion and government
WHAT: A nation, state, territory, or area controlled as if by a satrap
WHERE: Persian Empire under Darius
WHEN: Started around 522 BC
WHY: Darius needed a more efficient way to rule.
HOW: Satraps rule them
WHO: Hanfeizi and Li Su were two people who founded it.
WHAT: Were people who believed that a highly efficient and powerful government was the key to restoring order in society.
WHERE: It was an ethical system in China.
WHEN: It was founded sometime around 200 B.C.
WHY: The people that founded it believed that by enforcing it, you would be able to restore order in society.
HOW: They enforced it by giving rewards to the people who followed the rules and harshly punished the people who disobeyed the rules.
WHO: China's most influential scholar who created Confucianism
WHAT: He was China's most influential scholar who believed that social order, harmony, and good government could get better in China if the people followed the five basic relationships.
WHERE: He lived in China.
WHEN: He was born in 551 B.C. and lived when the Zhou Dynasty was declining.
WHY: He was a teacher believed in kindness in ruling.
HOW: He had the five basic relationships that were between:
1. Ruler and Subject
2. Father and Son
3. Husband and Wife
4. Older brother and Younger Brother
5. Friend and Friend
WHO: Laozi founded it, and the Chinese people followed it.
WHAT: It is the philosophy that a universal force guides all things.
WHERE: It was made in China.
WHEN: It was made around the 6th Century B.C.
WHY: Daoists believed that powers came from nature.
HOW: They lived in nature with very little appliances.
WHO: Shi Huangdi established this.
WHAT: It is someone that has unlimited power.
WHERE: It was established in China.
WHEN: It was made around 221 B.C.
WHY: Shi Huangdi wanted unlimited power.
HOW: They use their power in an arbitrary manner.
WHO: Confucius created this.
WHAT: It is a trained civil service, or those who run the government; People who are specialized in their field
WHERE: It was created in China.
WHEN: It was created around 520 B.C.
WHY: He said that an education could transform a humbly born person into a gentlemen.
HOW: He believed that a gentlemen had four virtues they should follow.
WHO: Zoroaster created it.
WHAT: It is the belief in one god, Ahura Mazda, and was an important influence to the development of Manichaeism.
WHERE: It was created in Persia.
WHEN: It was created around 600 B.C.
WHY: Zoroaster preached and taught people this and they believed it so it became a belief.
Yin & Yang
WHO: Ancient thinkers thought of them and the Chinese people believed in them.
WHAT: They are two powers that together represented the natural rhythms of life.
WHERE: They were in China.
WHEN: They were made around the 4th Century B.C.
WHY: They represented harmony for the Chinese people.
HOW: The Yin represents all that it cold, dark, soft and mysterious. The Yang represents the opposite, all that is warm, bright, hard and clear. The Yin is often referred to as the female and the Yang is often referred to as the male.
Cyrus the Great
WHO: Persian king
WHAT: He conquered several neighboring kingdoms, and instead of destroying their temples, he stopped and honored their customs through prayer, and was great at governing.
WHEN: He was king from 550 B.C. - 530 B.C.
WHY: King Cyrus honored their customs so they people he conquered would like him more and so Cyrus had less of a chance to deal with the conquered people revolting.
HOW: Cyrus would stop and pray, and had a good method of governing because of his kindness towards people and of how wise he was.
Reigned 530-521 BC. Son of Cyrus the Great, conquered Egypt after his father died. Completely ignored the policy of toleration set by father (Cyrus), incompetent, overextended the empire into Egypt
WHO: Iron workers were in this time period.
WHAT: It is a time period when the use of iron became more frequent.
WHERE: It happened in regions of Europe.
WHEN: It happened in the 12th Century B.C.
WHY: It happened because iron lasted longer and was more efficient.
HOW: Iron was molded into tools and other things that the people needed.
WHO? A group of political thinkers
WHAT? Believed that a highly efficient and powerful government was key to restoring order in society
WHEN? Ancient China
WHY? Wanted to restore harmony
WHO? Founded by Cyrus the Great. The kingdom of Medes and Persia
WHAT? One of the biggest empires with over 2,500 miles of land
WHERE? Modern day Iran
WHEN? 550 BC
WHY? Cyrus was a very good ruler and a military genius and conquered much land
WHO? Powerful rulers
WHAT? A government with one ruler controlling everything
WHERE? An example would be Iran years ago
WHEN? All the time
WHY? Used to maintain order and oppress peoples rights
WHO? The people of a civilization
WHAT? Allows people to make their own decisions for their country
WHERE? an example would be the U.S.A.
WHEN? All throughout history (an example is now)
WHY? SO people have freedom and opportunities
"Eyes and Ears" of the King
WHAT? Made sure that the satraps appointed to rule the provinces were always loyal
WHEN? After 522 BC during King Darius I's rule
WHY? King Darius set up provinces that could have their own culture, currency, and language, but still wanted complete power
HOW? They are sent by the king and spy on the officials and gather Intel.
WHO? The successor of Cambyses
WHAT? Another great king, a noble of the ruling dynasty
WHEN? Took power around 522 BC
WHY? Was a great king who brought Persia things like the Royal Road, provinces and satraps, and standardized coin money
WHO? Ordered to be built by Shi Huangdi
WHAT? A wall that extended almost the length of the empire's border, thousands of miles long
WHEN? Built in the Qin Dynasty
WHY? Shi Huangdi wanted to keep invaders out
HOW? Built by peasants
WHO? Darius established it
WHAT? allowed Darius to communicate quickly with the most distant parts of the empire.
WHERE? Ran from Susa in Persia to Sardis in Anatolia, a distance of 1,677 miles.
WHEN? Under Darius
WHY? Needed to ship goods, soldiers, and materials to point A to point B
WHO: Darius installed this.
WHAT: It is a governor who ruled locally.
WHERE: They were in each province (which were 20) in the Persian Empire.
WHEN: It started around 522 B.C.
WHY: He made this so he could know what was happening in every province at all times to know what was happening.
HOW: Darius installed them into it, and they told him what was happening in the provinces.
WHO? Confucius stressed that children should practice this
WHAT? Respect for One's parents and ancestors
WHEN? Respectful all the time
WHERE? Children should respect them everywhere.
HOW? honoring their memory after death through the performance of certain rituals.
WHY? meant devoting oneself to one's parents during their lifetime.
WHO? Chinese people looked for practical advice in solving problems.
WHAT? Chinese book that gave advice on practical and everyday problems; oracle book
WHEN? They used it when they wanted to seek their fortune.
HOW? Readers used the book by throwing a set of coins, interpreting the results, and then reading the appropriate oracle, or prediction
WHY? helped people to lead a happy life by offering good advice and simple common sense.
WHO? First emperor of China who doubled the size of China
WHAT? He was the leader of the Qin Dynasty
WHEN? IN the Qin dynasty
HOW? Established an autocracy( this meant the ruler has unlimited power)
WHY? Wanted unlimited power
the Chinese dynasty (from 246 BC to 206 BC) that established the first centralized imperial government and built much of the Great Wall; started by Qin Shi Huangdi; The dynasty that replaced the Zhou dynasty and employed Legalist ideas in order to control warring states and unify the country.
Kushite King who forced out the Libyans out of egypt.
Persian Prophet and religious reformer
Said that there were two spirits
1.One represented evil and the other truth
2. They were both in constant battle
3. People needed to take part in the struggle and in the end, they will be judged on how well they fought.
These ideas influenced later religions.
Seven-tiered building in Baybylon used by chaldean piests and Astrnomers.
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