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astronomy chapter 4
Terms in this set (32)
All planets orbit in the same direction around the Sun.
The Jovian planets are made of lighter elements than the terrestrial planets.
Asteroids are the remnants of an ancient planet that somehow broke apart or exploded.
Because our solar system contains heavy elements, it must be that at least some of its material was once inside other stars
Most comets are thought to originate from within the Kuiper belt.
Our planetary system consists of
large and small planets, some accompanied by moons as large as the smaller planets.
In our solar system, which of the following planets is NOT a member of the Jovian group?
The best way to measure the mass of a planet is to measure the
gravitational pull of the planet on an orbiting satellite or a nearby spacecraft.
The average density of which of the following planetary groups is close to that of water (1000 kg/m3)?
Jovian planets, because of their H and He composition
We have discovered moons around
all the planets except those nearer to the Sun than Earth is.
The four inner, terrestrial planets have
very high average densities.
How has the present mix of chemical elements in the universe been produced?
H and some He were formed in the Big Bang, while the heavier elements have been slowly formed in the centers of stars over the life of the universe.
A T Tauri wind
sweeps away dust and gas at the end of the creation of a protoplanetary disk.
The most likely mechanism for the solar system's formation appears to be
that a cloud of gas and dust condensed to form the Sun, while planets formed later by condensation and accretion within the nebular disk.
In a rotating physical system (e.g., a star formation region, or a skater), what happens to the rotation rate (or angular speed) when the mass of the system condenses toward the center of rotation?
The formation of terrestrial-type planets around a star is most likely to have occurred by what process?
Accretion, or slow accumulation, of smaller particles by mutual gravitational attraction
The Oort cloud is
a spherical solar system halo of icy objects far beyond the orbit of Pluto.
What method of detection has found most of the extrasolar planets currently known?
The transit method
Size and composition of inner planets
rocky materials with dense iron cores and high average density
size and composition of outer planets
primarily light elements such as hydrogen and helium, low average density
which planets don't have moons
Venus and mercury
what characteristics do terrestrial planets have?
Earthlike, hard rocky surfaces with mountains
what characteristics do jovian planets have?
Jupiterlike planets, mostly gaseous or liquid
Known as minor planets, most orbit around sun in asteroid belt
trans- Neptunian object
largest of these planets, known as dwarf planets, most orbit the kuiper belt
result when Kuiper belt objects collide
what is our solar system
recycled star dust
what did the big bang produce
H and He
The solar nebular hypothesis
a cloud of interstellar gas and dust contracts because of its own gravity, the cloud flattens and spins more rapidly around it axis, the central condensation develops the evolves into a glowing protosun, the planets form outside the surrounding disk of gas and dust
rapid rotation flattens the nebula, 100,00 after contraction beings a rotating flattened disk surrounds what will become to protosun, aka prolyd. Explains why all orbits lay in the same plane and same direction
outer planet formation
cold, slow moving gases were gravitationally attracted to the Jovian core planets
T- tauri winds
a brief intense burst of mass loss
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