289 terms

Counseling DSST Test

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

emotion, experience
Genuine _______ and willingness to share thoughts and ____________ are essential elements of effective counseling.
behavior change
Five Main Goals of Counseling: 1. Facilitate ___________ ____________ - help the individual function in society. 2. Enhance coping skills. 3. Promote decision-making 4. Improve relationships. 5. Facilitate clients' potential.
coping skills
Five Main Goals of Counseling: 1. Facilitate behavior change 2. Enhance ________ _______ - help the individual deal with problems as they arise. 3. Promote decision-making 4. Improve relationships. 5. Facilitate clients' potential.
decision-making
Five Main Goals of Counseling: 1. Facilitate behavior change 2. Enhance coping skills. 3. Promote ________ ________ - help the individual to develop problem-solving skills and trust their own judgment. 4. Improve relationships. 5. Facilitate clients' potential.
relationships
Five Main Goals of Counseling: 1. Facilitate behavior change 2. Enhance coping skills. 3. Promote decision-making 4. Improve __________ - help the individual get along with other people and develop meaningful social interaction. 5. Facilitate clients' potential.
clients' potential
Five Main Goals of Counseling: 1. Facilitate behavior change 2. Enhance coping skills. 3. Promote decision-making 4. Improve relationships. 5. Facilitate ________ __________ - help the individual to become the best person he or she can be as defined by the person him or herself.
government agency
Certification is done by the _________ or an ___________ and the person's transcripts are examined to ensure that all requirements are met.
CACREP 8 100 600
_________ has developed __ core areas of study that need to be demonstrated as well as requiring ___ hours of supervised counseling and ___ hours of internship experience.
Accreditation Related Educational
CACREP stands for Council for the ___________ and ___________ ____________ Programs
Certified Counselors
The National Board of __________ ___________ was established in 1982 to provide a system to recognize professional competence in counseling.
1982
The National Board of Certified Counselors was established in ____ to provide a system to recognize professional competence in counseling.
licensed certified
The National Board of Certified Counselors was formed to address the difficulty of distinguishing between ________ and ________ counselors.
counselor certification examination
To become a member of the National Board of Certified Counselors an individual must have: 1. Master's or doctorate 2. 2 years professional counseling experience in a supervised setting. 3. Pass a _________ ___________ ___________.
2
To become a member of the National Board of Certified Counselors an individual must have: 1. Master's or doctorate 2. _ years professional counseling experience in a supervised setting. 3. Pass a counselor certification examination.
Masters doctorate
To become a member of the National Board of Certified Counselors an individual must have: 1. ________ or _______ 2. 2 years professional counseling experience in a supervised setting. 3. Pass a counselor certification examination.
Licensing
__________ is a legal process authorized by state legislation.
DSM-IV 1994 2000
__________ is the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders published by the American Psychiatric Association in ______ and revised in ____.
multiaxial 5
The DSM-IV uses _________ classification, which involves rating each individual on _ separate dimensions.
personality disorders mental retardation
In the DSM-IV Axis I has all diagnostic categories except _________ _______ and _______ ___________.
Axis II
Personality disorders and mental retardation appear in ______ __ of the DSM-IV.
psychosocial environmental
Axis IV is focused on the patient's __________ and ___________ problems that could be contributing to their condition.
eating anxiety
Several new diagnostic categories were added from DSM-III onwards. These include categories for ________ disorders, some ________ disorders, some personality disorders, and disorders of childhood.
Axis III
____ ___ of DSM-IV is concerned with general medical conditions that could be contributing to the disorder.
global assessment functioning
GAF stands for _______ __________ of _________
social relationships occupational
The GAF scale considers things such as ________ ___________ and _________ functioning.
Axis V GAF
_____ _ of the DSM-IV indicates an individual's level of adaptive functioning. This uses the ___ scale.
Rehabilitation
__________ counselors work with people with disabilities to help them overcome their limitations.
Rehabilitation
____________ counselors also work with those who have been in prison, or who have psychological disorders.
Mental health
_________ _________ counselors are part of the team of professionals that work with people suffering from psychological disorders.They usually work in mental health hospitals and clinics, dealing with people who have been diagnosed with a particular disorder and they work on the identification, treatment and prevention of such dysfunctions.
holistic
The counselor role is __________ in that it seeks to address the needs of the "whole person."
case manager
Counselors often assume the _____ _______ role.
Social needs
________ ______ are seen in the context of the family, work environment, friendships, and any activity that brings the person in contact with other members of the community.
cognition affect behavior
Counselors recognize the relationship between ________(1), ______(2), and ________(3). By involving clients in activities that help them to see other viewpoints and perspectives, they are helping the person change the way they think (1) about life and hopefully the way they feel (2) and act (3) as well.
helping
A _________ relationship is one where one of the people involved is assisting the other to achieve positive growth by improving functioning and coping skills.
helping relationship
Counseling is based on establishing a _______ __________ and recognizes that the relationship between client and counselor is unique and dynamic.It is different than other relationships in that it is totally "feelings" oriented, the relationship is governed by privacy rules, and it is intended to have therapeutic value.
mirroring
The _________ effect gives the counselor valuable insight into the way the client deals with people and events on a day-to-day basis. Together the client and counselor can work on the complexities involved in personal relationship and use it as a model upon which to base other successful relationships.
genuineness
Four core dimensions in establishing an effective counseling relationship: ___________, empathy, respect, and concreteness.
empathy
Four core dimensions in establishing an effective counseling relationship: genuineness, _________, respect, and concreteness.
respect
Four core dimensions in establishing an effective counseling relationship: genuineness, empathy, _________, and concreteness.
concreteness
Four core dimensions in establishing an effective counseling relationship: genuineness, empathy, respect, and ______________.
Genuineness
__________ refers to the ability of the counselor to show his or her true self in a counseling relationship.
Empathy
__________ is the ability to adopt another person's viewpoint in order to fully understand how the other person is feeling at the moment.
Respect
_________ is the ability to regard a client as a person of dignity and worth.
Concreteness
_________ is the ability to express an idea or thought in a way that is relevant and succinct. Communicating in a way that is accurate and definite promotes understanding and helps the client become more in touch with their feelings. It models an accurate way of expressing ideas and thoughts that can be continued in other relationships.
consultant
When a counselor becomes involved with a third party who is also interested in the best interests of the client, the counselor is operating in a ___________ role. When counselors assume this role they liaise with teachers, parents, nurses, business organizations, and other health-care professionals to help the client meet their needs.
trainer
As a _________, the counselor works with other people to teach interpersonal and human relation skills.
expert consulting
In an ______ _________ role, a counselor diagnoses a problem and finds a solution. This is different than traditional counseling where the client is encouraged to find his or her own solution. It is based more on the medical model of diagnosis and prescription.
negotiator
as a ___________, the counselor is involved with mediating disputes between parties. the counselor is often called in to facilitate communication and help the parties reach a settlement. Requires the same core skills as counseling: genuineness, empathy, respect, and concreteness.
advocate
counselors often take on the role of ___________, the responsibility of bringing together all the resources necessary to affect meaningful change in the client's life. This may involve a team of professionals or involving friends and family or soliciting the aid of other professional agencies. Essentially the counselor becomes the client's voice and helps him or her gain access to the means that will enable a positive result.
Guidance groups
_______ _________ are discussion sessions with an emphasis on education and prevention. It is relatively structured and the topic is prearranged and follows a set schedule. The counselor leads the group through the discussion and keeps it on track. Typically they deal with educational, vocational, and social issues and have upwards of 20 participants.
Counseling groups
_________ ______ focus on the individual rather than the topic. They are usually limited to five to ten participants and the discussion is unstructured. This format allows the discussion to go in the direction dictated by each individual's input. The counselor creates a safe environment to share ideas and feelings and these groups are effective only if the participants are comfortable with sharing. The focus is on sharing information and helping the groups members relate to and identify with each other's issues and work together to make positive behavior changes.
Therapy groups
________ _______ are designed for participants with intense psychological problems. They first emerged during WWII to deal with high rates of psychiatric illness and a shortage of trained professionals. They deal with individuals who are unable to function normally in society and who have deep-seated personality or other psychological disorders. They continue for long periods of time and the counselor requires a great deal of skill and experience dealing with the presenting disorder.
Encounter sensitivity
_________(1) groups focus on expanding personal self-awareness and reaching one's potential. They emerged as part of the human potential and new age movements. The purpose is to help otherwise "normal" individuals maximize their sense of fulfillment and self-actualization. They are also called _______ (2) groups, are intimate experiences characterized by a great deal of trust, sharing, and risk taking. Often there are many non-verbal or sensory exercises and commonly these groups take place over weekends and are called retreats.
T Training Groups
__(1)-Groups or ______(2) groups focus on the group process itself and are designed to help participants become better group members.They examine the roles of individuals in a group setting. The roles are then discussed and analyzed and each individual is trained on how to function more effectively in a group setting.
Group norms
_________ ______ refer to the formal and informal rules that govern an individual's behavior within the group setting. Common formal ones are confidentiality and one person talks at a time. Informal ones evolve as the participants get to know one another and experience positive and negative reactions to their behavior.
family therapy
The basis of _______ ________ is that an individual's dysfunctional behavior grows out of his or her interactions with the family unit as well as the community at large. It is often brief and focuses on the resolution to a problem.
systemic approach
Family counseling takes a _______ ________ to therapy whereby it views the family as a interactive unit. It views the client as one part of a larger system and in order to help the person change their behavior, their thoughts, feelings, and actions must be looked at in the context of how he or she deals with other people.
individualistic
The opposite of a systemic approach to therapy is the ____________ approach.
individualistic (or individual therapy)
The focus of the _________ approach is to help the client make changes by getting in touch with their own thoughts and feelings and then using that self knowledge to function better in society.
teacher
The role of a counselor in family therapy is that of __________. The family counselor acts as a role model or coach to help the family members learn new ways of interacting with one another.
David 1898
The counseling movement is generally thought to have been started by Jesse B _______ in ____. He worked in a Detroit high school. He counseled students on educational and vocational issues. By 1907, he was a high school principal in Michigan and he instituted weekly vocational guidance classes.
Parsons 1908
Frank _________ founded a vocation bureau in Boston in ____. This bureau created a direct link to schools in Boston linking educational and career training and development.
Vocational Guidance 1913
The National ___________ ___________ Association was founded in ____. It served as formal recognition of the vocational counseling movement started by Parsons in 1908.
1908
Clifford Beers's book "A Mind That Found Itself" was published in ____. The novel, about a young man who is slowly consumed by psychosis, highlighted the importance of self-healing and personal insight in the recovery from mental illness. It is said that this book really put the mental health movement in motion. It brought forth the idea that an individual's development during their school years has a profound effect on total development.
mind that found itself clifford beers
The book that put the counseling movement in motion is called "A ____ ____ _____ _____" and was written by ______ ______.
Mental Hygiene 1909 Beers
The committee that was responsible for setting up free mental-health clinics throughout the US was called the National Committee for ________ ________ and was founded in ____ by Clifford _____. The committee was also influential in legislative reforms for the treatment of persons with mental illnesses.
1905 Alfred Binet
Developed in ____ by _______ _______, a French psychologist, the first IQ scales were his attempt to understand how peoplethink and reason. Most psychologists at the time were interested in the pathology of mental illness. His testing approach to how the mind actually worked was new and revolutionary.
Binet Scales
The first IQ tests were called the ______ ________.
1916 Lewis Terman
In ____, _______ _________ revised the Binet Scales for an American test population.
Stanford-Binet
Terman translated the French terms in the Binet Scales and adapted the meanings to suit an American, English-speaking population. He also added new items that were fully tested and his new edition was named the ____________-__________. The normative approach entrenched the new test as a leading test of intelligence.
1951
In ____ the American Personnel and Guidance Association was formed.
american personnel and guidance association 1951
The _______ _______ ___ ___________ _______ was formed in ____ as a result of a merger between the National Vocational Guidance Association, the American College Personnel Association, and the National Association of Guidance Supervisors and Trainers. The three groups were providing very similar counseling services so their combined strength increased their influence.
American Counseling Association 1991
What began as the American Personnel and Guidance Association, changed its name in 1983 to the American Association for counseling and Development and received its latest name (_________ _________ ______) in ____?
Division 17
_________ __ of the American Psychological Association (APA) is called Counseling Psychology. There are many professional counseling associations included in this part of the APA, the American Mental Heath Counselors Association, National Career Development Center, and the Association for Multicultural Counseling and Development to name just a few.
distorted
Nonverbal communication is considered a less _______ form of communication.
time body voice environment
the four modes of behavior for nonverbal communication are:
time
By failing to recognize a person or respond to comments in a prompt manner conveys many things such as a lack of interest or hostility or ambivalence. On the other hand eager responses or quick acknowledgement generally means the person is listening, interested and attentive. The amount of time spent discussing a particular topic provides insight into a person's priorities. These are examples of ____ mode of nonverbal communication.
facial expressions
______ ______ are the type of nonverbal communication that are most likely to be involuntary.
direct nonverbal communication
Using the body to give signals or commands is a form of ______ _________ _______ (like Nodding the head, waving, or shrugging the shoulders)
environment
The amount of distance a client places between himself and the counselor is an example on nonverbal communication using the _________.
attending
The nonverbal behaviors considered essential for counselors display are called______ behaviors.
Mandatory Aspirational
___________ ethics entail a level of ethical function where the minimum standards are met. _________ ethics are those that counselors strive to meet.
Unethical
_______ behavior is defined as behavior that is inconsistent with the expectations set forth in the relationship.
Buckley-Pell
The _________-_____ amendment split a student's records into two parts. The part that remained confidential was any information obtained specific to the counseling relationship. Psychologically relevant information gathered for purposes other than direct counseling were now considered part of the educational record and would be available to parents and students as well as administrative staff.
FERPA 1974
The Buckley-Pell amendment, was made into _____ in ____
Family and Educational Rights and Privacy Act
FERPA stands for ...
expressed agreement
Establishing privileged information: (1) __________ __________, (2) confidentiality is deemed necessary for the relationship to be effective, (3) the privileged relationship must be supported by the community, and (4) disclosure could harm the individual.
confidentiality necessary
Establishing privileged information: (1) expressed agreement, (2) ___________ is deemed _________ for the relationship to be effective, (3) the privileged relationship must be supported by the community, and (4) disclosure could harm the individual.
supported by the community
Establishing privileged information: (1) expressed agreement, (2) confidentiality is deemed necessary for the relationship to be effective, (3) the privileged relationship must be __________ ___ ___ ___________, and (4) disclosure could harm the individual.
disclosure could harm
Establishing privileged information: (1) expressed agreement, (2) confidentiality is deemed necessary for the relationship to be effective, (3) the privileged relationship must be supported by the community, and (4) ________ ________ ______ the individual.
1
Type _ career counseling deals with helping a client make a career decision. Typically a client will not know what direction to take or what education is needed to get to a certain professional goal so he or she goes to a career counselor for short-term help in determining which career is best.
2
Type _ career counseling focuses on making a career decision by addressing overall decision making skills. Rather than help a client make one decision regarding a career, the counselor gives the client tools to use in any situation where an important decision is required.
3
Type _ career counseling views a career as a process of choices rather than making one ultimate professional choice. These clients are given tools and frameworks to use in order to assess their values as they change over time and relate that changes to career transitions.
4
Type _ career counseling sees one's career as the ultimate expression of a self-actualized person who uses their skills and abilities to fulfill their personal and professional goals. This is the ultimate form of career counseling and the type of career most people wish for but seldom achieve. Rather than getting caught up in the grind of working, these clients are encouraged to see their work as an expression of who they are. In this case one's career is doing what the person loves to do and getting paid to do it.
trait-factor
The first theory to explain the process of occupational choice was_____-_______ theory. It is a theory of individual differences and those differences could be analyzed and set into patterns that identified which type of person was suited for which type of work.
psychological inventories
Personal traits are most often discovered through the use of ________ __________. The results of these standardized tests are then compared to the general public and a profile is developed indicating that people with the same type of interests are generally successful in certain types of careers. The focus is on identifying one's own traits and then matching those traits with a suitable career.
Myers-Briggs
_________ _________ is a common tool in career counseling and that looks at the mental activities ofperceiving and judging. A person either perceives information by sensing or intuition and judges activities based on thinking or feeling. The different combinations create different profiles and then those profiles are related to career development work adjustment.
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
MBTI stands for...
perceiving judging
The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) is a common tool in career counseling and that looks at the mental activities of __________ and __________. A person either perceives information by sensing or intuition and judges activities based on thinking or feeling.
Roe 1956
____ developed a structural theory of career development in ____.
structural
The _______ theory postulated that there were personality differences between people and between members of various occupations and that these personality differences were attributable to the early parent-child relationship.
Binet
_________ (1857-1911), was a French psychologist who is known for his research and innovation in testing humanintelligence.
Simon
Binet, along with Theodore _______, devised a series of tests that, with revisions, came into wide use in schools, industries, and the army.
1916
Binet and Simon developed a concise, easy to administer measure of intelligence which became popular by ____.
special education
Performance on the Binet Simon test was the basis for determining IQ (intelligence quotient). Binet believed the scores should only be used to identify children in need of ________ ______ and that with proper training even children with low test scores could benefit greatly.
Emotional concentration
Roe's three main types of parent child relationships: __________ _________ - overprotection or over demanding environment. Avoidance of the child - neglecting or rejecting environment. Acceptance of the child - casual or loving environment.
Avoidance of the child
Roe's three main types of parent child relationships: Emotional concentration - overprotection or over demanding environment. __________ ___ __ _____ - neglecting or rejecting environment. Acceptance of the child - casual or loving environment.
Acceptance of the child
Roe's three main types of parent child relationships: Emotional concentration - overprotection or over demanding environment. Avoidance of the child - neglecting or rejecting environment. _______ ___ ____ _____ - casual or loving environment.
Maslow's hierarchy of needs
Roe based her structural theory of career development on ...
Holland
The most recognizable structural development theory of career development was developed by ______.
Holland
________'s theory is one of personality development and career choice and it emphasizes that the typology of the individual and the typology of the work environment are the two factors that will determine job success. His approach is considered differential because it focuses on the differences between people.
Realistic
Holland's six working environment types are: _______, investigative, artistic, social, enterprising, and conventional.
investigative
Holland's six working environment types are: Realistic, __________, artistic, social, enterprising, and conventional.
artistic
Holland's six working environment types are: Realistic, investigative, _________, social, enterprising, and conventional.
social
Holland's six working environment types are: Realistic, investigative, artistic, ________, enterprising, and conventional.
enterprising
Holland's six working environment types are: Realistic, investigative, artistic, social, _________, and conventional.
conventional
Holland's six working environment types are: Realistic, investigative, artistic, social, enterprising, and ___________.
Holland
________ suggests that by matching one's personality type with the type of work environment you can predict job satisfaction. Because people search for a work environment where they can showcase their talents and abilities, they will naturally be happier and more successful in jobs where their personality matches the demands and expectations of the job.
Holland Code
The ________ ____ is a categorization of over 12000 careers by each of the six personality job environment types.
Development
___________ theories of career development take a long-term approach to occupational choice with the emphasis being placed on expression of a person's self-concept.
developmental
The _________ theories originate from the notion that as an adolescent, one explores career options and then makes a decision regarding education and eventually gets a job in the profession of choice. The theory is based on the fact that as each decision is made it eliminates other choices and directs the path toward future decisions.
decision-making
The career development theory of _________ _________ is founded on the idea that each individual has several possible alternatives to choose from at any given point. Each choice comes with identifiable results and consequences and each individual values these results differently. By looking at each choice in a systematic way, the best career choice can be determined by multiplying the value of each event with the probability of the event occurring.
Developmental
_________ Counseling and Therapy is an integrated theory of assessment and treatment that recognizes a person changes over time and in different situations.
narrative possibility
Postmodern thought argues that the self constantly changes and interacts with the environment differently in different contexts and over time. The postmodern paradigm rests on the idea of _________ ____________, or the idea that anything is possible.
postmodern thought
Developmental theory is grounded in __________ __________.
Piaget
Developmental Counseling and Therapy is an adaptation of ______'s theory of child development.
Developmental counseling and therapy
DCT stands for...
Piaget 4
_________ found that children had _ levels of development. DCT took those levels and postulated that adults recreate the levels as they as they encounter changing contexts and tasks over a lifetime.
sensorimotor
Piaget's four levels of development are __________, concrete, formal, and post-formal.
concrete
Piaget's four levels of development are sensorimotor, ________, formal, and post-formal.
formal
Piaget's four levels of development are sensorimotor, concrete, ______, and post-formal.
post-formal
Piaget's four levels of development are sensorimotor, concrete, formal, and _______-_________.
better different
In DCT a higher developmental level is not _______ it is just _________.
orientations
DCT took Piaget's developmental levels and defined them as __________ that need to be considered and worked through in therapy. Each one requires different frames of reference and the sum of them all represents the whole person. Depending on where a person is at in their therapy they will be working on different ones.
accommodation
_____________ was seen as the first part of cognitive development. Piaget saw it as the act of receiving information from the environment.
Assimilation
____________ is the act of imposing our perceptions on the environment, the second part of cognitive development. Although ___________ and accommodation are inseparable one can be the primary operative at any given time. Piaget's hypothesis was that finding balance between ________ and accommodation would lead to positive, adaptive development.
Co construction
__ __________ refers to the notion that a client learns in relation to the counselor.
behavioral physical
A client who is in a sensorimotor stage of cognitive development will express his or her emotions through _________ and ________ means.
sensorimotor
In this stage the client will display tears if sad, violence if angry, smiles if happy, etc... The client can't put words to the emotions and may also try to deny their feelings.
elemental
The sensorimotor stage is also called the ________ stage.
concrete
A client in the _________ stage of cognitive development will be able to name feelings but be unable to reflect on those feelings.While the counselor learns what happened or how the client was feeling, there is little acknowledgement of why the person did what they did or felt what they felt.
situational
The concrete stage is also known as...
Formal
A client in the _______ stage of cognitive development will be able to talk abstractly about their feelings and recognize patterns. this is the level where self-knowledge and understanding start to arise. The understanding of why they are feeling a certain way or behaving like they do is the first step toward growth, however at this stage the client is unable to make the changes necessary to actually act on their new understanding of themselves.
25 40
It is estimated that __% to __% of North American adults do not get to the formal stage of cognitive development.
reflective
The formal stage is also known as ...
Dialectic
The last stage of cognitive development is the ______ stage
dialectic
At this systematic point of cognition, the client is able to integrate all their personal reflections and multiple perspectives to devise a plan that will address any dysfunctional thoughts, feelings, or behaviors. They will be able to see their emotions as multidimensional and be able to reframe their emotions to suit the situation and context.
Environmental
__________ structuring provides firm but gentle parameters permitting both the client and the counselor to explore sensory based feelings in a safe environment.
Environmental
____________ structuring is the style used with the sensorimotor orientation.
coaching environment
___________ __________ is the style used with the concrete orientation.
coaching environment
The _______ ________ helps the client and counselor to clearly outline their thoughts and feelings and present them with an agreed upon structure. The whole process is set up to foster predictability and create trust.
consultative environment
_______ ________ structuring is the style used for clients in the formal stage of development.
consultation
___________ implies that the counselor facilitates the skill of reflecting on one's emotions but he or she does not influence the process. In this way the client learns the skills necessary to reflect on his or her thoughts, feelings, and behavior across many different contexts and situations.
collaborative environment
_______ ___________ structuring is the style used with dialectic orientation
collaborate
When a client is cognitively ready to ___________ with the counselor then fundamental changes to the underlying belief systems can be made.
Collaboration
___________ is what developmental counseling and therapy is based on - the ability to work with the client to identify maladaptive behaviors and brainstorm ways to turn the process in a positive direction.
Psychodynamic
_________ therapy focuses on discovering the unconscious processes that govern behavior. These methods seek to uncover underlying thoughts or feelings in order to gain insight and understanding into why a person acts the way he or she does. The focus is often on how the past affects present behavior.
Id
In Psychodynamic theory, the __ is the instinctual pole of the personality. The subconscious.
pleasure principle
The id is ruled by the ________ __________.
Ego
In Psychodynamic theory, the ___ is the part of the brain that regulates personality and behavior.
ego
The ___ controls consciousness and limits behavior to that which is rational.
Ego
The ___ is ruled by the reality principle.
Super Ego
In Psychodynamic theory, the _______ ___ plays the role of the judiciary in determining personality.
Anxiety
________ is a key concept in psychodynamic therapy and it results from the conflict between the id, ego, and super ego. When the ego can't maintain control over the forces of the id and the superego, it acts in ways to defend itself. These behaviors are called ego-defense mechanisms.
Defense mechanisms
Ego _________ ________ either deny or distort reality, enabling the person to cope with the current reality. They are normal and by themselves do not represent neurotic behavior. They operate at theunconscious level so people are largely unaware that their perceptions are really a distorted form of reality.
defense mechanism
Repression is an ego _________ ___________.
Denial
_______ is the preconscious or conscious manifestation of repression. It is the simplest form of defense mechanisms, and most people are aware that they are doing it.
Transference
____________ is the act of a client projecting reactions onto the counselor in the same way the client would react to a person who played a significant role in their personal life - usually a father or mother. The counselor then analyzes the reactions and gains insight into the client's thought patterns by "playing the role" of this significant person.
Transference
__________, in psychoanalysis, is the situation in which the patient comes to feel about the analyst in the same way he or she once felt about some other important person in his/her life.
Phenomenological
____________ orientation requires a counselor to pay attention to how their client views and perceives the world. By understanding this "subjective reality" the counselor can then begin to understand what motivates behavior and help the person make decisions that are more in-line with the client's ultimate goals.
Erikson
As a student under Sigmund Freud for many years, _________ expanded upon Freud's psychoanalytic ideas, and developed his own views on human development as a progression through eight psychosocial stages.
psychosocial
Erikson focused chiefly on __________ development.
entire lifespan adolescence
Erik Erikson and Sigmund Freud both defined stages of development. However, the major difference between the two theories is that Erikson's stages covers across the _______ _________, while Freud's theory ends with ___________.
Who am I uniquely
Identity formation is defined by the question "___ __ _ _______?"
identity identity diffusion
Identity Formation was studied by Erik Erikson, who constructed the major task of adolescence as _________ vs. _______ _______.
Jung
The basic idea of ____'s theory of personality is that each part of a person's personality must be balanced.
normal neurotic dream
Jung's theory states that every part of a person's personality will be expressed by some means, whether it be as a ______(1) expression, a _______(2) expression, or an expression in a _____ (3). Jung stated that all of the parts of a person's personality must be in balance.
introversion
Jung stated that _________ increases with age.
Alfred Adler
________ ______ made the original split from pure psychodynamic theory insisting that a person helps to create themselves and is not purely a creation of their early experiences.
Adlerian
________ theory holds that an individual begins to form their personality and approach to life during the first 6 years and the outcome is much more related tochoices and responsibility rather than pure unconscious or conscious motivation.
Adlerians
_______ insist that what people are born with is not nearly as important as what they do with the skills and abilities they have. They believe that a person can become whatever he/she wants.
analytical psychology
Carl Jung created a variation of psychoanalytic theory, called _________ __________.
Sociometry Moreno
______ is a technique developed by J. L. _______ for figuring out the direction of interaction in a small group.
Kierkegaard Nietzsche
Famous European philosophers like _________ and _________ developed existential philosophy which has at its root the idea that a person is responsible for their own destiny and their own sense of self. Existential therapy is also referred to as humanistic therapy.
Existential
________ therapy is based on a philosophical approach to people and existence on earth.
Umwelt Mitwelt Eigenwelt
Existential therapy's three ways of being in the world.
Umwelt
________ refers to the biological world
Mitwelt
_________ refers to the world of human relationships
Eigenwelt
_______ refers to one's own inner world.
Existential
__________ therapy requires the client to "be in the world."
Authenticity
________ is the basic goal of existential therapy.
Carl Rogers
______ ________ developed what is now referred to as the Person-Centered approach to therapy.
Person-centered
This approach views people as positive beings that tend to move toward becoming better people. The term self-actualized is most associated with person-centered therapy and implies becoming the best person you can be and working toward fulfilling your ultimate potential.
Gestalt
________ therapy is concerned with the whole person and views each individual as a complex dynamic of experiences and behaviors.
Gestalt
_______ therapy emphasizes the patient's experience of reality (phenomenological) as well as individual responsibility (existentialism). The focus of therapy is on bringing together a person's past experiences and developing a present circumstance that enables growth and development.
Perls
Frederich S. ____ argued that people have an innate goodness and that this nature should be allowed to express itself at all times. Gestalt therapy was developed based on his work.
Gestalt
______ therapy contends that psychological problems all arise from denials of this innate goodness or frustration with its nature.
Carl Rogers
_____ ________'s client-centered therapy contends that people that can only be understood by approaching them from the vantage point of their phenomenological world.
behaviorism carl rogers
Humanism is a type of psychology that was in many ways a reaction to _______ and its leader was ____ ______.
Humanistic
__________ psychologists believe that the individual or self should be the central concern of psychology. It is their argument that we need to get the "person" back into psychology.
Gestalt
In ________ therapy, clients are discouraged from looking into their past or asking why questions. Such focuses are thought to be an attempt to escape having to make decisions and choices in the present.
5
Reality theory is based on the notion that people are born with _ genetically encoded needs.
fun
The five Reality Theory needs are survival, love, power, freedom, and ___.
freedom
The five Reality Theory needs are survival, love, power, ______, and fun.
power
The five Reality Theory needs are survival, love, _____, freedom, and fun.
love
The five Reality Theory needs are survival, ____, power, freedom, and fun.
survival
The five Reality Theory needs are _______, love, power, freedom, and fun.
Reality
_______ theory is based on Choice theory whereby we don't act to satisfy our needs directly but rather make a set of choices that gets us to the point where our needs can be met.
Reality
_______ theory focuses on what the person can control in their relationships and how they can begin to exert power over their choices and make positive changes. When a client makes a series of good choices they are rewarded with satisfied needs. This reward provides the motivation to make choices that will move people in the direction of their needs and goals.
reality
A ______ therapist is likely to ask the following question: "Does your present behavior have a reasonable chance of getting you what you want and will it take you in the direction you want to go?"
Rational-emotive behavior therapy
REBT stands for...
Albert Ellis
______ ______ is the person who came up with REBT therapy. He proposed that when a person interprets the world around them, their personal conclusions may be irrational, self-defeating, and may cause emotional disturbances.
REBT
The type of therapy which is based on the premise that suffering of the psyche and emotions is due to primarily unverbalized feelings and demands that people internalize
REBT
involves the therapist challenging the patient's unvoiced assumptions and persuading the patient that it will be better to live without placing unattainable demands on oneself. It has been found to be effective in reducing anxiety.
cognitive behavioral therapy
Rational Emotive Behavior therapy (REBT) is the source of today's _______ _________ _______.
REBT
____ began as a specific therapeutic approach which has subsequently spawned a host of other specific therapies that take the same integrated approach to cognition and behavior.
cognitive
The word ______ refers to conscious intellectual activity, such as thinking, memory, judgment, imagining, etc.
ABC
The ___ theory of personality is central to Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy.
activating event
In the ABC theory of personality A stands for the _______ ______.
persons belief
In the ABC theory of personality B stands for the _______ ______.
persons reaction (the consequence)
In the ABC theory of personality C stands for the _______ ______.
belief reaction
In the ABC theory of personality, the ______ causes the _______
Beck
One of the most important contemporary theories on the cause of depression is _____'s theory of depression, which states that depression is caused by an individual's thoughts being biased toward the negative.
themselves
Beck's depression triad includes people's thoughts about _______, the world and the future.
the world
Beck's depression triad includes people's thoughts about themselves, _____ _____ and the future.
future
Beck's depression triad includes people's thoughts about themselves, the world and the _______.
Beck arbitrary inference
According to ______, a conclusion reached in the absence of any adequate evidence is called _________ _________.
arbitrary inference
Beck's 4 biased ways of thinking: _____ _______, selective abstraction, overgeneralization, and magnification/minimization.
selective abstraction
Beck's 4 biased ways of thinking: arbitrary inference, _______ _______, overgeneralization, and magnification/minimization.
overgeneralization
Beck's 4 biased ways of thinking: arbitrary inference, selective abstraction, ___________, and magnification/minimization.
magnification/minimization
Beck's 4 biased ways of thinking: arbitrary inference, selective abstraction, overgeneralization, and __________/_________.
Beck schemas analyze
____'s(1) cognitive therapy contends that people with emotional disturbances operate with _______(2) that are impossible to live with and focuses on having the patient _____(3) these ______(2).
Beck
Cognitive Theory is a system developed by Aaron _______ that emphasizes the role of thinking on one's actions and behaviors.
Cognitive therapy (CT)
________ ________ is characterized by its attention to details and the dissection of the role that thinking plays on the actions of an individual. While psychoanalysis is based on the idea that a person's unconscious beliefs affect behavior, this concentrated on automatic thoughts and beliefs that lead to distress.
Cognitive
Essential to the theory of _______ therapy is the idea of Automatic thoughts.
conscious
Are automatic thoughts conscious or unconscious?
cognitive
______ therapy is focused on changing ways of thinking, and focuses on small, obtainable goals.
Behavior
_______ therapy provides action oriented methods to help people change they way they think and react to situations and events. It has its roots in experimental psychology and the study of the learning process. Much of it is rooted in observational learning.
Pavlov
Ivan _____ was the first Behavioral theorist.
Operant conditioning
_______ _______ is a type of learning that occurs by altering the consequences of one's actions. It gained attention when it appeared that cats "learned" how to escape out of box through trial and error. The time it took for the escape decreased with each attempt and a learning curve was derived that indicated repeated exposure to a situation would change the behavior in a positive way.
Skinner
BF ________ is thought to be the founder of operant conditioning methods.
Skinner box
The guy who developed operant conditioning developed the _____ ___ where a pigeon would peck at a light key that was either green or red. With the experimenter controlling the reinforcement (food) the pigeon could be taught to pick only the red or green key if that was the color that resulted in food being given.
Skinner
______ epitomized the behaviorist approach more than any other psychologist. He was the leading exponent of the school of psychology known as behaviorism, which explains the behavior of humans and other animals in terms of the physiological responses of the organism to external stimuli.
skinner
______ is the rewards and stimuli guy.
Operants behaviors
_______, or _______ used to operate on an environment, are said to be controlled by their consequences-they will maintain or increase their rate if they are reinforced; they will decrease their rate if they are not reinforced or if they are punished.
Social Learning
______ _______ theory focused on the study of covert behaviors that are unobservable to other people. These behaviors include such things as physical reactions (blood pressure, heart rate), thinking (remembering, imagining), and feeling (sad, happy) and this theory emphasizes the importance of thoughts and images on psychological functioning.
Bandura
Albert _________'s approach to learning is also cognitive in nature, but his added a decidedly social aspect to the process and for that reason is often referred to as the social learning theory. The central idea is that learning takes place through the observation and the imitation of models.
cognitive 1960
Social learning theory is also known as social ______ theory and was created in the ____'s
Bandura
______ (social cognitive theory) indicated that we observe both the actions of others as well as the consequences of those actions. And that based on those observations we form rules of behavior for specific situations which we then apply to regulate our own actions.
social cognitive
Bandura's _____ _____ theory emphasized both the social origins of thoughts and actions as well as the human capacity for self regulation.
Systematic desensitization
______ ______ is a behavioral approach designed to treat patients presenting extreme anxiety of fear toward a particular event or situation. The approach is to gradually introduce the feared stimulus and ensure that the client experiences a positive and relaxed reaction each time
In Vivo
__ ____ desensitization involves actual, physical exposure to a feared event or situation.
flooding
Rather than a gradual process of exposure, in the ______ method the client is thrown into the anxiety causing situation for a prolonged period and after awhile realizes that the feared consequences don't occur so the client learns that that particular stimulus is not scary or anxiety producing.
systematic
Behavioral and cognitive clinicians will often use ________ desensitization as an approach to treating a specific fear or phobia. It involves having patients combine relaxation with the visualization of anxiety-provoking stimuli or situations has been effective in dealing with phobias. It is not used exclusively, but it may help to greatly reduce specific fears in patients, such as common phobias involving animals or heights.
Systems
______ therapy refers to approaching and working and counseling within the context of the family.
feelings (affect)
According to multiple theories, humans experience the world through _______, through cognition (thoughts) and through behavior (actions/reactions).
cognition (thoughts)
According to multiple theories, humans experience the world through feelings (affect), through ______, and through behavior (actions/reactions).
behavior (actions/reactions)
According to multiple theories, humans experience the world through feelings (affect), through cognition (thoughts) and through _______.
Eclecticism
integrating the three levels of human experience is called _________.
Ecclectic
While there are many specialized models of psychological development, the ultimate approach likely involves a little bit from each one of the theories. _______ practitioners have learned what works best from each model and for which situations and they use the best of all the theories to help the client grow and develop as a person.
Technical
_______ eclecticism requires looking at many different approaches and then choosing a set of techniques to use and adopt. This collection of techniques can be used without necessarily subscribing to one ideology and the "bag of tricks" can be modified depending on the client and the situation.
Theoretical integration
______ _______ refers to the practice of creating a new conceptual framework that borrows ideas from different theories to make a "new" theory.
Common Factors
The _______ _________ approach searches different theories for similarities and common elements.
naturalistic
When an observer is conducting a _______ observation, they should attempt to be as unobtrusive as possible.
reactivity
People who know they are being watched will often behave in a different way. This is called ________.
phenomenology
Naturalistic observation, like __________, is a descriptive method which involves no manipulation of antecedent conditions. It involves observing behavior in a real-life or natural setting.
Titchener structuralism
Edward _______ is associated with _______. It is one of the early views of psychology which considers the subject matter of psychology to be human consciousness and suggest that consciousness be analyzed in terms of sensations and feelings.
first
The ______ stage of the consulting process is pre-entry. the counselor must evaluate his or her own skills and determine whether or not he or she is a match for the task required.
second
The ______ stage of the consulting process is the actual contracting of work. At this stage the counselor must decide what model he or she will apply to the situation and determine if the model will work and is appropriate for the issue. A fee schedule is also set at this point.
third
The ______ stage of the consulting process is the problem definition. Together the counselor and client discover what it is exactly that requires resolution. By defining the problem, the goal is also established.
fourth
The _____ stage of the consulting process is intervention selection. At this point the counselor chooses the best course of action. This will of course be determined by the needs of the client and the setting.
final (fifth)
The _____ phase of the consulting process is evaluation and termination. The success of the process is evaluated. The parties agree to end the counseling because either the outcome was successful or the likelihood of success is limited.
Structuralism
_______ was a theory that uses culturally interconnected signs to reconstruct systems of relationships rather than studying isolated, material things in themselves.
Structuralism
_______ involves the use of a technique called introspection.
Meta-theory
Multicultural Counseling and Therapy is a ____-______ that offers a theory about the different counseling theories. It offers a new framework within which to work and counsel. It recognizes the Western world's theories as neither good nor bad but simply as a collection of ideas that represent different worldviews.
Bi-culturality
__-________ is the state of feeling connectedness to two different cultures.
Andro
An _____-centric theory uses male oriented constructs to draw conclusions about the human population.
Gender
A ______-centric theory proposes two divergent paths of development for men and women.
Intra-psychic
An ______-______ orientation supports the notion that an individual is to blame for their behavior and reactions to situations.
Determinism
_______ assumes that personality and patterns of behavior are set at a very early stage of physical development. It is a fatalistic approach to life that believes a person "is who he is" and no amount of therapy or counseling will change the core person.
logotherapy
Viktor Frankel developed ________ as a response to his own personal crisis. It holds that the critical issue to embrace is not what is happening right now but how one thinks and feels about what is happening. It is essentially the search for meaning in life and with clients who are in extreme despair it offers a way to reinterpret the tragedy surrounding them. It has to do with reframing.
viktor frankel
_____ _____ developed logotherapy
Identity Confusion
Gay identity development process: Stage 1: ____ ______, Stage 2: Identity Comparison, Stage 3: Identity Tolerance, Stage 4: Identity Acceptance, Stage 5: Identity Pride, and Stage 6: Identity synthesis.
Identity Comparison
Gay identity development process: Stage 1: Identity Confusion, Stage 2: ______ _____, Stage 3: Identity Tolerance, Stage 4: Identity Acceptance, Stage 5: Identity Pride, and Stage 6: Identity synthesis.
Identity Tolerance
Gay identity development process: Stage 1: Identity Confusion, Stage 2: Identity Comparison, Stage 3: ______ ______, Stage 4: Identity Acceptance, Stage 5: Identity Pride, and Stage 6: Identity synthesis.
Identity Acceptance
Gay identity development process: Stage 1: Identity Confusion, Stage 2: Identity Comparison, Stage 3: Identity Tolerance, Stage 4: ______ ______, Stage 5: Identity Pride, and Stage 6: Identity synthesis.
Identity Pride
Gay identity development process: Stage 1: Identity Confusion, Stage 2: Identity Comparison, Stage 3: Identity Tolerance, Stage 4: Identity Acceptance, Stage 5: _______ _____, and Stage 6: Identity synthesis.
Identity synthesis
Gay identity development process: Stage 1: Identity Confusion, Stage 2: Identity Comparison, Stage 3: Identity Tolerance, Stage 4: Identity Acceptance, Stage 5: Identity Pride, and Stage 6: ____ _____.
reality
Groups like Alcoholics and Narcotics Anonymous use _____ therapy in their approach to substance abuse.