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Sociology Test 2- Lisa Beene
Terms in this set (52)
Social patterns that guide our everyday lives
A social position that an individual occupies
A social position a person receives at birth or assumes involuntarily
A social position that a person assumes voluntarily and reflects personal ability and choice.
A status that has special importance for social identity, often shaping a persons life.
Behavior expected of someone who holds a particular status
Conflict among roles corresponding to two or more statuses
Tension among roles connected to a single status
The process by which people creatively shape reality through social interaction.
social construction of reality
An individual's efforts to create specific impressions in the minds of others... impression management
presentation of self
Explores the process of making sense in social encounters
The study of social interaction in terms of theatrical performance.
A small social group whose members share personal and enduring relationships
A large and impersonal social group whose members pursue a specific goal or activity.
Leadership that emphasizes the completion of tasks... get things done
Focusses on collective well-being
Denies people participation in government
Group members often seek agreement and may pressure one another toward conformity.
The tendency of group members to conform, resulting in a narrow view of some issue.
A social group that serves as a point of reference in making evaluations and decisions.
A social group toward which a member feels respect and loyalty.
A social group toward which one feels competition or opposition
A large secondary group that is organized to achieve goals sufficiently.
Work, income based organizations, one that pays people for their efforts
Join to pursue some goal that they think is worthwhile... voluntary, community service
People are forced to join; involuntary. Jury duty, military draft.
An organized model rationally designed to perform tasks efficiently.
6 key elements of an ideal bureaucratic organization
Hierarchy of offices
Rules & regulations
Formal, written communication
People who are assigned highly specialized roles
Vertical ranking of offices forming a pyramid of power
hierarchy of offices
Designed to help the organization operate in a completely predictable fashion
rules and regulations
Impersonal evaluation of performances
Rules ahead of personal whims so that everyone is treated formally.
Heart is not people, but paperwork.
formal, written communication
4 Common problems in organizations
The process by which the principles of the fast food restaurants are coming to dominate more and more sectors of American society as the rest of the world.
The recognized violation of cultural norms
Attempts by society to regulate people's thoughts and behavior
A formal response by police, courts, and prison officials to alleged violations of the law.
Criminal Justice System
Attempts to link deviance and biological/genetic characteristics.
Attempts to determine what psychological/personality factors result in deviance.
Deviance is shaped by society
Social Foundations of Deviance
Deviance varies to cultural norms
People define people as deviant
Norms & the way people define situations involve social power
Hirschi's Control Theory
attachment, opportunity, involvement, belief
Deviance is ________ to social inequality
When do arrest rates peak
Which kind of crime is more common of lower social-economic people?
What race is arrested more for street crime?
How many serious crimes in the US per year
Key elements of the criminal justice system
Law enforcement, courts, correctional system
Approximately % of criminal cases are resolved through plea bargaining.
4 justifications for punishment
retribution, deterrence, rehab, societal protection
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