61 terms

ap US history period 3

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Washington's farewell address
Warns against sectionalism and foreign affairs, wants everyone to stay strong as a nation. Encourages things written by Hamilton
Thomas Paine
American Revolutionary leader and pamphleteer (born in England) who supported the American colonist's fight for independence and supported the French Revolution (1737-1809)
Constitution
A document which spells out the principles by which a government runs and the fundamental laws that govern a society
federalism
A system of government in which power is distributed among certain geographical territories rather than concentrated within a central government.
Republican Motherhood
Expectation that women would instill Republican values in children and be active in families; helped increase education for women
French Revolution
The revolution that began in 1789, overthrew the absolute monarchy of the Bourbons and the system of aristocratic privileges, and ended with Napoleon's overthrow of the Directory and seizure of power in 1799.
republican government
System of government in which power is held by the voters and is exercised by elected representatives responsible for promoting the common welfare.
legislative branch
Branch of government that makes the laws
separation of powers
Constitutional division of powers among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches, with the legislative branch making law, the executive applying and enforcing the law, and the judiciary interpreting the law
ratification process
the ratification of the Constitution required only nine of the thirteen states (not unanimity, like the Articles of Confederation)
Seven Year' War
A war between New France and the British. The reason this war started was because New England wasn't allowed to cross the Allegheny mountains and this made them mad. Also there were small fights at the border but other than those two things there countries were supposed to be at peace.
loyalist
American colonists who remained loyal to Britain and opposed the war for independence.
George Washington
1st President of the United States; commander-in-chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolution (1732-1799)
natural rights
the idea that all humans are born with rights, which include the right to life, liberty, and property
American Revolution
This political revolution began with the Declaration of Independence in 1776 where American colonists sought to balance the power between government and the people and protect the rights of citizens in a democracy.
Northwest Ordinance
Enacted in 1787, it is considered one of the most significant achievements of the Articles of Confederation. It established a system for setting up governments in the western territories so they could eventually join the Union on an equal footing with the original 13 states
Albany Congress
A conference in the United States Colonial history form June 19 through July 11, 1754 in Albany New York. It advocated a union of the British colonies for their security and defense against French Held by the British Board of Trade to help cement the loyalty of the Iroquois League. After receiving presents, provisions and promises of Redress of grievances. 150 representatives if tribes withdrew without committing themselves to the British cause.
William Pitt
The Prime Minister of England during the French and Indian War. He increased the British troops and military supplies in the colonies, and this is why England won the war.
Paris Peace, 1763
ended the French and Indian War/Seven Years' War between Great Britain and France, as well as their respective allies. In the terms of the treaty, France gave up all its territories in mainland North America, effectively ending any foreign military threat to the British colonies there
Pontiac
1763 - An Indian uprising after the French and Indian War, led by an Ottowa chief named Pontiac. They opposed British expansion into the western Ohio Valley and began destroying British forts in the area. The attacks ended when Pontiac was killed.
Proclamation of 1763
A proclamation from the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains, and which required any settlers already living west of the mountains to move back east.
mercantilism
Economic policy common to many absolute monarchies. Government control of foreign trade is of paramount importance for ensuring the military security of the country. In particular, it demands a positive balance of trade and desires new sources of gold and silver bullion, thus fueling more colonialism.
Quartering Act, 1765
Was an act enforced by the British on their North American colonies. It required colonist to provide adequate housing and basic necessities like food and drink to British soldiers.
Stamp Act, 1765
Direct tax imposed on the colonists by Parliament which increased the money colonists paid on printed goods. Purpose was to pay for British soldiers stationed in North America after the French and Indian War. Protests against this tax often turned violent, intimidating the tax collectors, so it was never efficiently collected.
Admiralty Courts
British courts originally established to try cases involving smuggling or violations of the Navigation Acts which the British government sometimes used to try American criminals in the colonies. Trials in Admiralty Courts were heard by judges without a jury.
Sons/Daughter of Liberty
A radical political organization for colonial independence which formed in 1765 after the passage of the Stamp Act. They incited riots and burned the customs houses where the stamped British paper was kept. After the repeal of the Stamp Act, many of the local chapters formed the Committees of Correspondence which continued to promote opposition to British policies towards the colonies. The Sons leaders included Samuel Adams and Paul Revere.
Declaratory Act
Act passed in 1766 after the repeal of the stamp act; stated that Parliament had authority over the colonies and the right to tax and pass legislation "in all cases whatsoever."
Boston Massacre
The first bloodshed of the American Revolution (1770), as British guards at the Boston Customs House opened fire on a crowd killing five Americans
Committee Correspondence
shadow governments organized by the Patriot leaders of the Thirteen Colonies on the eve of the American Revolution.
Intolerable Acts
in response to Boston Tea Party, 4 acts passed in 1774, Port of Boston closed, reduced power of assemblies in colonies, permitted royal officers to be tried elsewhere, provided for quartering of troop's in barns and empty houses
First Continental Congress
The First Continental Congress convened on September 5, 1774, to protest the Intolerable Acts. The congress endorsed the Suffolk Resolves, voted for a boycott of British imports, and sent a petition to King George III, conceding to Parliament the power of regulation of commerce but stringently objecting to its arbitrary taxation and unfair judicial system.
Hessians
German soldiers hired by George III to smash Colonial rebellion, proved good in mechanical sense but they were more concerned about money than duty.
Second Continental Congress
Convened in May 1775, the Congress opposed the drastic move toward complete independence from Britain. In an effort to reach a reconciliation, the Congress offered peace under the conditions that there be a cease-fire in Boston, that the Coercive Acts be repealed, and that negotiations begin immediately. King George III rejected the petition.
Lexington and Concord
April 8, 1775: Gage leads 700 soldiers to confiscate colonial weapons and arrest Adam, and Hancock; April 19, 1775: 70 armed militia face British at Lexington (shot heard around the world); British retreat to Boston, suffer nearly 300 casualties along the way (concord)
Common Sense
1776: a pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that claimed the colonies had a right to be an independent nation
Loyalist and patriots
loyalist: American colonists who remained loyal to Britain and opposed the war for independence.
Patriots: American colonists who were determined to fight the British until American independence was won
Saratoga
A battle that took place in New York where the Continental Army defeated the British. It proved to be the turning point of the war. This battle ultimately had France to openly support the colonies with military forces in addition to the supplies and money already being sent.
Treaty of Paris, 1783
agreement signed by British and American leaders that stated the United States of America was a free and independent country
Republican Motherhood
Expectation that women would instill Republican values in children and be active in families; helped increase education for women
state constitutions
States wrote a new constitution to replace their colonial charters after they declared independence. Most called for bicameral legislature and a governor (usually one year term for elected officials). You had to own property or pay a certain amount of tax to vote. Individual liberties protected people (including freedom of religion), but did not separate church and state.
Articles of Confederation
1st Constitution of the U.S. 1781-1788 (weaknesses-no executive, no judicial, no power to tax, no power to regulate trade)
Land Ordinance 1785
A law that divided much of the United States into a system of townships to facilitate the sale of land to settlers.
Northwest Ordinance 1787
A major success of the Articles of Confederation. Set up the framework of a government for the Northwest territory. The Ordinance provided that the Territory would be divided into 3 to 5 states, outlawed slavery in the Territory, and set 60,000 as the minimum population for statehood
Shays' Rebellion
Rebellion led by Daniel Shays of farmers in western Massachusetts in 1786-1787, protesting mortgage foreclosures. It highlighted the need for a strong national government just as the call for the Constitutional Convention went out.
Virginia Plan
"Large state" proposal for the new constitution, calling for proportional representation in both houses of a bicameral Congress. The plan favored larger states and thus prompted smaller states to come back with their own plan for apportioning representation.
New Jersey Plan
New Jersey delegate William Paterson's plan of government, in which states got an equal number of representatives in Congress
Great Compromise
1787; This compromise was between the large and small states of the colonies. The Great Compromise resolved that there would be representation by population in the House of Representatives, and equal representation would exist in the Senate. Each state, regardless of size, would have 2 senators. All tax bills and revenues would originate in the House. This compromise combined the needs of both large and small states and formed a fair and sensible resolution to their problems.
Three-fifths Compromise
Agreement that each slave counted as three-fifths of a person in determining representation in the House for representation and taxation purposes (negated by the 13th amendment)
"The federalist Number 10"
Madison state that one of the strongest arguments in favor of the Constitution is the fact that it establishes a government capable of controlling the violence and damage caused by factions.
Electoral College
A certain number of electors from each state proportional to and seemingly representative of that state's population. each elector chooses a candidate believing they are representing their constituency's choice. The candidate who receives a higher proportion of electoral votes within a state receives all the electoral votes for that state.
Cabinet
Advisory council for the president consisting of the heads of the executive departments, the vice president, and a few other officials selected by the president.
Bill of Rights
Although the Anti-Federalists failed to block the ratification of the Constitution, they did ensure that the Bill of Rights would be created to protect individuals from government interference and possible tyranny. The Bill of Rights, drafted by a group led by James Madison, consisted of the first ten amendments to the Constitution, which guaranteed the civil rights of American citizens.
1st, 5th, 8th, 9th, 10th Amendments
1st Amendment: Freedom of Religion, Speech, Press, Assembly, and Petition
5th Amendment: restrictions on the government's prosecution of persons accused of crimes. It prohibits self-incrimination and double jeopardy and mandates due process of law.
8th Amendment: Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.
9th Amendment: Give rights to states and individuals that are not specifically listed in the Bill of Rights
10th Amendment: the balance of power between the federal government and the states
Bank of the United States
Proposed by Alexander Hamilton as the basis of his economic plan. He proposed a powerful private institution, in which the government was the major stockholder. This would be a way to collect and amass the various taxes collected. It would also provide a strong and stable national currency. Jefferson vehemently opposed the bank; he thought it was un-constitutional. nevertheless, it was created. This issue brought about the issue of implied powers. It also helped start political parties, this being one of the major issues of the day.
strict/loose interpretation
strict interpretation: whatever is not mentioned specifically in the Constitution cannot be done
loose interpretation: A broad way of interpreting the Constitution that allows the Federal Government to take actions that the Constitution doesn't forbid it from taking. Favored by Alexander Hamilton as a way of creating the National Bank.
implied powers
Powers not specifically mentioned in the constitution
Whiskey Rebellion
In 1794, farmers in Pennsylvania rebelled against Hamilton's excise tax on whiskey, and several federal officers were killed in the riots caused by their attempts to serve arrest warrants on the offenders. In October, 1794, the army, led by Washington, put down the rebellion. The incident showed that the new government under the Constitution could react swiftly and effectively to such a problem, in contrast to the inability of the government under the Articles of Confederation to deal with Shay's Rebellion.
Jay's Treaty, 1794
Treaty signed in 1794 between the U.S. And Britain in which Britain sought to improve trade relations and agreed to withdraw from forts in the northwest territory
Pinckney's Treaty, 1795
Gave Americans free navigation of the Mississippi and trade at New Orleans
Farewell Address, 1796
1796 speech by Washington urging US to maintain neutrality and avoid permanent alliances with European nations
XYZ Affair
1798 - A commission had been sent to France in 1797 to discuss the disputes that had arisen out of the U.S.'s refusal to honor the Franco-American Treaty of 1778. President Adams had also criticized the French Revolution, so France began to break off relations with the U.S. Adams sent delegates to meet with French foreign minister Talleyrand in the hopes of working things out. Talleyrand's three agents told the American delegates that they could meet with Talleyrand only in exchange for a very large bribe. The Americans did not pay the bribe, and in 1798 Adams made the incident public, substituting the letters "X, Y and Z" for the names of the three French agents in his report to Congress.
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